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50 terms

vital signs

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4 vital signs
temperature, pulse, respiration, BP
afebrile
normal body temperature
febrile
CONDITION in which body temperature is elevated
pyrexia
elevation above the upper limit of normal body temp (body temperature above normal)
synonym for fever
fever
elevation above the upper limit of normal body temp (body temperature above normal)
synonym for pyrexia
hyperthermia
high body temperature, elevated above normal range
hyperpyrexia
high fever, above 41C or 105.8F
hypothermia
low body temperature
ineffective thermoregulation
state in which temperature fluctuates between above-normal and below-normal ranges
temperature
the difference between the amount of heat produced by the body and the amount of heat lost to the environment
core temperatures measured by
tympanic or rectal. also, esophagus, pulmonary artery or bladder
surface body temperature measured by
oral, axillary, and skin surface
normal temp: adult
Oral = 98.6F, 37C
Rectal = 99.5F, 37.6C (higher than oral)
Axillary = 97.6F, 36.5C (lower than oral)
Tympanic = 99.6F, 37.5C (higher than oral)
Forehead = 94.6F, 34.4C (lower than oral)
pulse
light tap caused by expansion of the aorta sending a wave through the walls of the arterial system
pulse rate
number of pulsations felt in a minute
stroke volume
quantity of blood forced out of the left ventricle with each contraction
pulse amplitude
quality of the pulse in terms of fullness; reflects strength of left ventricular contraction
arrhythmia
irregular pattern of heartbeats
bradycardia
-slow heart rate
is a pulse rate below 60 beats/min in an adult
tachycardia
- rapid heart rate. it is a pulse rate of 100-180 beats/min in an adult
- decreases cardiac filling time --> decreases stroke volume and cardiac output
cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped (from left ventricle) per minute
CO = stroke volume x Heart rate
pulse rhythm
the pattern of pulsations and pauses between them
pulse deficit
the difference between the apical and radial pulse rates
pulse amplitude levels
0 = absent pulse
1+ = thready pulse (not easily felt, sl. pressure disapp
2+ = weak pulse (light pressure -> disappears)
3+ = normal pulse (moderate pressure to disappear)
4+ = bounding pulse (doesn't disappear w/mod. press
dysrhytmia
an irregular pattern of heartbeats
abnormal cardiac rhythm
pulse pressure
difference btw systolic and diastolic pressures
respiration
involves ventilation, diffusion and perfusion.
-gas exchange btw the atmospheric air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries
ventilation
(or breathing) is movement of gases in and out of the lungs
- both autonomic and voluntary control
diffusion
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and the circulating blood
perfusion
is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and tissue cells
aka external respiration
eupnea
normal respiration (with equal rate and depth)
tachypnea
increased/fast respiratory rate
bradypnea
decrease/slow in respiratory rate
apnea
periods during which there is no breathing
dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
orthopnea
dyspneic people can often breath more easily in an upright position (sitting or standing)
blood pressure
fore of the moving blood against arterial walls
systolic pressure
highest point of pressure on arterial walls when the ventricles (left) contract
diastolic pressure
the least amount of pressure exerted on arterial walls, which occurs when the heart is at rest between ventricular contractions
hypertension
BP is above normal for a sustained period of time
hypotension
is below normal BP
orthostatic hypotension
a drop in systolic BP of ≥ 20mm Hg OR a drop in diastolic BP of ≥ 10mm Hg within 3 minutes of standing up
Korotkoff sounds
the series of sounds for which the nurse listens when taking the BP
Normal levels of vitals: adults
Temp (oral) = 37C
Pulse = 60-100
Respiration = 12-20
BP = 120/80
regulation of pulse: Sympathetic NS
↑ HR
↑ AV conduction
↑ contractility
vasoconstriction
regulation of pulse: Parasympathetic NS
↓ HR
↓ AV conduction
↓ contractility
vasodialtion
vagus nerve (bowel movement)
apical
listen with stethoscope's diaphragm over the apex of the heart. best btw 5th & 6th ICS and about 3 inches to the left of the median line & slightly below the nipple
pre-hypertension
120-139 OR 80-89
stage 1 hypertension
140-159 OR 90-99
stage 2 hypertension
≥160 OR ≥100