Unit 1 Microbiology
Terms in this set (140)
sick people give rise to microorganisms in their body
Which of the following would be consistent with the idea of spontaneous generation?
In the scientific name Bacillus anthracis, the term Bacillus is the
All of the following are examples of new emerging infectious diseases except
Viruses to bacteria to protozoa
Which one of the following sequences exhibits increasing size?
Curing infectious diseases
Which one of the following is not a role for bioremediation?
Beneficial microbial inhabitants of the body
Golden Age Microbiology
Rapid discovery of basic microbiology principles
Once controlled by preventative public health measures, they are now on the rise
Resistant to the usual sterilization procedures for pathogens
The converse of biogenesis
Acellular infectious agent
Chemical composition includes RNA or DNA
include the agents responsible for stomach ulcers and plague, are prokaryotes, impart distinctive flavors in foods such as yogurt and cheese, are the most metabolically diverse group
are obligate intracellular parasites, have a protein coat that surrounds the genetic information,
include molds and yeasts, derive their energy from degrading organic materials
contain the protozoa and algae
different types of bacteria
The Gram stain technique is valuable in distinguishing
spheres in packs of eight
A bacterial arrangement called a sarcina has which of the following morphological shapes?
They reproduce by mitosis
All of the following characteristics apply to the prokaryotes except
water movement by osmosis AND the cell wall prevents bursting, but NOT water is limited by the cell membrane
How is water balance controlled in bacterial cells?
permit eukaryotic motility, may have peritrichous or polar arrangements, are used for chemotaxis
are involved in group translocation, Contain components of the electron transport chain for ATP generation, involved with signal sequences in secretion
are linear rods contained within a nucleus, replication is followed by binary fission, are closed circular single molecules
Bacterial ribosomes are distinct from eukaryotic ribosomes. They have the same function of
Stores essential genetic information
Prevents phagocytosis; attachment
Contains a few genes; not essential for cell
Site of nutrient accumulation in cell
Short straight hair-like fibers
Gram (-) cell wall
Rigid outer boundary
best temperature for growth
Psychrophiles and thermophiles differ with respect to their
At what point in the bacterial growth curve are bacteria most vulnerable to antibiotics?
A soil sample is added to a culture medium that has been designed to promote the growth of the genus Pseudomonas while inhibiting the growth of fungi. This test uses a
Temperature, oxygen, an pH
Which of the following conditions are most likely to affect the growth of bacteria?
distinguishes colonies of one type of bacterium from those of another type
A differential medium is one that
The interval of time between successive binary fissions of a cell or population of cells is known as the
standard plate count using dilution series
Which of the following methods of measuring population growth is a viable cell count?
grow in the presence or absence of oxygen
Facultative bacteria are those that
Most of the human pathogens are
this group has most of the the pathogens as they grow at body temperature
would grow on selective media containing relatively high levels of salt
they can tolerate a pH above 8.5
they are able to live at the bottom of the ocean
they do not or cannot use oxygen
these have been found in seawater from hot water volcanic vents
They survive in environments where O2 concentration is relatively low but are inhibited by high O2 levels
this group requires oxygen for metabolism, just like humans
organism that thrives in a relatively acid environment
they grow best in the presence of oxygen but can grow in the absence of oxygen
they are able to live at the bottom of the ocean
ethylene oxide with an inert gas
The chemical counterpart of the autoclave uses
wash hands and clean wounds superficially
Chlorhexidine is a biguanide used to
is not considered sterile
A substance that has been pasteurized
disrupting cell membranes
Triclosan destroys bacteria by
a direct flame
Of the following, the most efficient method for sterilization of a bacteriological transfer loop is
Low temperature is
reacting with protein sulfhydryl groups to disrupt function
Heavy metals generally kill microorganisms by
Which one of the following elements would be classified as a halogen
Moist heat kills microorganisms by
HEPA filters are used to filter which one of the following?
The air of a hospital room
Ultraviolet light is valuable for reducing the microbial population in
water osmoses out of microorganisms causing them to shrivel
When food has been salted
Autoclave, direct flame, boiling water for 10 minutes, Hot air oven for 2 hours at 160 degrees Celcius, Gamma radiation, Filtration, Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing
Physical control method for Vegetative microorganisms and endospores
Physical control method for Pathogenic microorganisms, not endospores
yields pyruvate for use in the TCA cycle, requires an "investment" of 2 ATPs, begins with a glucose molecule, results in a net gain of 2 ATPs
requires cytochromes for electron transport, ends with acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms, starts with the oxidation of NADH, results in the formation of water.
requires electrons eventually be passed to NADPH, Requires energy from light to take place, uses chlorophyll as the pigment in the cyanobacteria, is essentially the opposite of aerobic respiration
generates two carbon dioxide molecules per turn
denatures enzymes by altering their tertiary structures
Heat is useful in the destruction of bacteria because heat
You are studying an obligate anaerobe. Which one of the following pathways can you be assured is occurring?
The hydrolysis of ATP
Which one of the following does not involve a phosphorylation reaction?
production of pyruvate from glucose
The Krebs cycle accounts for all the following except
A bacterium that uses glucose as an energy source has been isolated from an anaerobic environment. After the growth of the bacterium, the pH of the growth medium is measured and found to be very acidic. When analyzed, the medium is found to have a high concentration of lactic acid. This bacterium is most likely metabolizing by a process known as
the process is exergonic
All of the following apply to the process of anabolism except
Enzymes are specific for only one reaction, generally in one direction
Which of the following statements is the most correct for enzyme reactions?
In the phototrophic production of energy, the oxygen originates from
eukaryotic and protozoan
A scientist discovers a new organism in run-off from the Rio Tinto River in Spain (the river runs through a copper mine and the water has a pH of 2.0). On basic microscopic examination and after conducting a few simple experiments, she finds that this single-celled species is heterotrophic, has no cell wall, uses a flagellum for motion, and contains a variety of internal structures that are bound by plasma membranes. Given this information, this new species is most likely a ______ cell in the _____ subcategory
The 70S ribosomes of Eukarya form part of the evidence for the endosymbiont theory
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?
a polysaccharide found in seaweed used to prepare solid culture media
Macroscopic cluster of cells appearing on a solid medium arising from a single cell
determines the number of viable cells in a culture
Bacterial isolation technique of spreading a droplet of culture or sample over the surface of a solid medium using an inoculating loop
requiring special nutritional or environmental conditions for growth-applies to bacteria
decolorizing too long AND using old cultures
Which of the following may result in Gram-positive bacteria appearing to be Gram-negative?
Bacterial endospores and Prions
Which of the following are resistant to destruction by typical control methods?
Level of resistance to antimicrobial control for protozoan cyst, fungi
Level of resistance to antimicrobial control for enveloped virus and vegetative
Level of resistance to antimicrobial control for prions and endospores
All the bacterial cells that result from the replication of a single original bacterial organism are said to be a
reduction of the number of pathogenic microorganisms to pose no threat of disease.
sterilization by heating steam in a jacket and subsequent entrance of the steam into a sterilization chamber, where materials and substances to be sterilized are placed
killing or removal of all microorganisms in a material or an object.
use of high concentrations of salts and sugars create hypertonic environment causing water to leave cell
action, used in food preservation
A chemical agent that can safely be used externally on living tissue to destroy microorganisms or to inhibit their growth?
Liquid media containing heat-sensitive components would best be sterilized by
Placing organisms at 4 ºC is
Capsules and Fimbriae
Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other, or to other surfaces?
Which of the following will not result in sterilization?
using bacteria to clean up pollutants
Bioremediation refers to
the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other AND the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other
Concerning catabolism and anabolism
Bulk removal of waste from a eukaryotic cell is accomplished via exocytosis
Disconnecting and bringing in the "float" from the toilet tank in your bathroom in to the lab
You wish to bring in an example of a biofilm to the microbiology lab. Which of the following represents the best choice for bringing in an intact biofilm for further study?
All of the below
A microbe is discovered growing beside a deep sea thermal vent near the Galapagos Islands. When researchers bring a sample up to the surface and try to grow it in a lab at room temperature in a normal incubator, they are unsuccessful. Why?
Using toilet bowl cleaner and nonionizing radiation to non-animate surfaces only removes or kills vegetative bacteria. The term that best describes this action is:
Concentrate the sample with membrane filtration then place the filter on a MacConkey agar plate (which contains lactose and a pH indicator that turns pink when acid by-products are present).
A sanitation engineer in Portland, Maine sends a water sample to your lab, and wants to know if there are lactose-fermenting microbes in the sample (their presence would indicate contamination with human waste). How might you determine if these microbes are present or not from this mixed-microbe specimen?
have a more complex internal structure than Archaea or Bacteria AND have a membrane around the DNA.
They are subject to lysis in hypotonic conditions
Mycoplasmas are bacteria that lack cell walls. On the basis of this structural feature, which of the statements below is true about mycoplasmas
separate clearly two objects that are very close together
The resolving power of a microscope is described as the ability of the microscope to
ultraviolet (germicidal) light
Which control method would not be a suitable choice for killing Mycobacteria in a capped culture tube?
A laboratory technician has two pure isolated biological samples he is working with: one of a virus, and one of a viroid. Unfortunately, the labels came off the tubes when they were placed in the refrigerator. The technician was sure he could distinguish between the two samples by analyzing for the presence of a single type of molecule. What type of molecule would he be looking for to differentiate between the two samples?
An organism that cannot tolerate the absence of oxygen in the environment is a/an
the inhibitor of the biochemical pathway that is typically the final product of the biochemical pathway.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur may be considered
Which type of phosphorylation does not require a membrane?
A urine sample with more than 100,000 organisms is considered indicative of infection. A urine sample containing 5,000 bacteria, with a generation time of 30 minutes, sits for 3 hours before finally being assayed. How many bacteria will then be present within the sample?
very effective at the mechanical removal of microorganisms
Plain soap is quite effective in controlling spread of microorganisms because it is
Protists are more susceptible to killing by penicillin than Gram-negative bacteria
Blood agar, 25% NaCl, 35C, in an anaerobic chamber
Your supervisor asks you to set up a pure culture of a bacterial species he is researching. He tells you that this species is a fastidious, halophilic, gram-positive mesophile that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase. What type of culture medium and environmental factors must you use to grow this organism?
They produce different amounts of energy because not all electron acceptors are the same-some are closer in terms of electronegativity to their high-energy electron carrier molecules (e.g. NADH) than others. The amount of energy that can eventually be obtained is directly proportional to the degree of difference between the high-energy electron carrier and the eventual terminal electron acceptor. The greater the difference, the greater the energy obtained. Oxygen typically has the highest degree of difference of the terminal electron acceptors utilized.
If the processes of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are basically similar - differing only in the terminal electron acceptor -why do they produce different amounts of energy?
Studies done by Buchner showed that ground-up yeast cells were able to convert sugar to alcohol. The components of the mixture that were responsible for the chemical transformation were
A hot tub (approx. 104ºF or 40ºC) would most likely contain
The action of heat or chemicals on proteins whose function depends upon an unaltered tertiary state
Extraction of energy through an incomplete, anaerobic degradation of glucose into ethanol
The energy-yielding breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid; no molecular oxygen is consumed in the degradation
Synthesis of ATP using energy given off during the electron transport phase of respiration
Chemical breakdown of complex compounds into simpler units to be used in cell metabolism
Viable plate count
Which of the following methods of enumerating cells is the only one to exclusively detect live cells?
You are likely to find bacteria belonging to the domain Archaea in a heavily chlorinated swimming pool
The signal sequence is used by bacteria for chemotaxis
may occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, the energy-yielding breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid; no molecular oxygen is consumed in the degradation
The polysaccharide-encased community of microorganisms that may enhance bioremdiation efforts AND may protect organisms against harmful chemicals are called
They become carbon dioxide
What happens to the carbon molecules in the pyruvic acid that goes through the TCA cycle?
Glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway both produce
Which molecules are not associated with the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria?
in a hot air oven
Oxidation of proteins is achieved most readily
There's no oxygen present, and it cannot respire anaerobically, It lacks the ability to respire (i.e. no electron transport chain), Conditions (pH, oxygen concentrations, etc.) have changed to such a point that respiration is no longer possible. (All of the above are possible)
Why would a cell respire rather than ferment?
This drug would be highly toxic for human beings, but may be useful as a topical antibiotic skin cream. . The top layer of skin cells is dead anyway so it would not matter if this drug damaged those cells. It could NOT be taken internally, though, by human beings.
A research lab is trying to produce new antimicrobial drugs. They have developed a drug that prevents mRNA from exiting the nucleus to enter the cytoplasm. This drug
contain sterols for strength
The membranes of eukaryotes and mycoplasma
regulate movement of molecules which enter and leave the cell
The cytoplasmic membrane of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes functions to
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