Upgrade to remove ads
MC 2000 Exam 1
Terms in this set (29)
According to the latest learning research discussed in class what are effective ways to learn and what are ineffective ways of learning?
- Moving spaces
- Multiple sessions for shorter period of time
Marshmallow Test: what is the test and how does it relate to learning (especially the follow up study)?
Definition: Kids were given a marshmallow and given the choice to eat it or wait 15 minutes and get a second marshmallow
Psychologist Walter Mischel explained
Richard Sherman and media portrayals:
How does a viewers understanding change when the media content changes? (Know the specifics from this example). How was the coverage of Richard Sherman an example of "convergence"? (*I'll give you the answer since we didn't spend much time on convergence: The Sherman coverage was an example of convergence because it was covered on live TV, youtube, print magazines, and was part of an advertisement for Beats headphones.)
What happened in the priming study with hot coffee vs. cold coffee? What is the moral of the study, as it relates to trusting our first impressions?
Lawrence Williams & John Bargh-- participant asked to hold hot cup and cold cup & then shown a picture of a person and asked questions about their impression on person.
-- results: those who held warm cup rated person warmer&friendly > those who held cold cup
--- shouldn't trust first impressions, primed to make judgments on people without realising -- outside experiences = bad-- likely to have negative opinion on similar experiences.
What happened in the Milgam experiment? How did the results change when Milgram altered the experiment (ex. placing teacher and learner in the same room, putting a lab coat on the researcher, having researchers disagree). How are the Milgram follow up experiments related to priming? What are the implications for media consumers and forming first impressions in media?
"We tend to follow orders from authority."
- altered: when authority figure was in same room- participants who complied fell to 40%
- when authority was not wearing a lab coat- fell to 20% and when there were 2 people running the experiment and disagreed it dropped to 0% complying.
- related to priming: media professionals decide what's emphasised/not. So our impressions are completely influenced.
- the implications of this is we only get one single story and this creates stereotypes of specific groups and emphasises their differences>similarities.
NPR News: "You had me at hello":
First impressions - know how participants ranked the friendliness of different voices.
They listened to range of voices saying 'hello'. They were then ranked in terms of friendliness, trustworthiness, dominance-- results showed agreement amongst strangers on who they felt sounded trustworthy or dominance etc.
TED Talk by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
What was the main idea of the TED Talk? Be able to cite her examples. How are single stories used in PR? Political communication? Advertising? Journalism?
"How headlines change the way we think" by Maria Konnikova
- How do headlines affect the way we understand an article? Be able to apply the findings to examples.
- What are viewers likely to takeaway if there is a misleading headline that is corrected by the article?
- What are viewers likely to takeaway if a photo and a headline don't correspond?
"4 headlines that will restore your flagging faith in journalism" by Joshua Benton
- How have headlines change as they moved from print to online? Have headlines become more or less emotional? In the print world, what sort of publications used headlines that were similar to the viral-friendly headlines of Upworthy or BuzzFeed? What is replacing Google search as the main traffic driver of online new content?
What's the definition of priming in psychology?
The non-conscious form of human memory (recognition of color)
What's the definition of priming in mass communication? What factors in a media message are related to priming?
Definition: Setting the stage for audience understanding (ex. political campaigns)
How is priming related to Walter Lippmann's ideas about stereotypes and a complex world?
What's the definition of agenda setting?
When media tells us what to think about something, but not what to think about it. (Media influences our way of thinking)
- What is another name for framing?
- What is framing?
- Be able to describe some of the framing experiments (positive vs. negative frames)
Framing (2nd level agenda setting): How the media choose to portray what they cover. The media focuses attention on certain events and then places the event within a specific context.
Frank Luntz in Frontline: "The Persuaders"
- How is Frank Luntz's work related to framing?
- How does Frank Luntz test his ideas?
- What are some of the critiques of Frank Luntz's ideas?
- How is the WiIlie Horton ad an example of framing?
Luntz related to framing: works out how certain words used frame a specific message, i.e. changed 'estate tax' to 'death tax'-- gave it a whole newer meaning/understanding.
- tests ideas with a focus groups and experiments
- critiques: opened up the world to dirty tactics- politicians using it to gt ahead rather than for the good. ??
Walter Lippmann on stereotypes
- What does Walter Lippmann think our beliefs about the world are based on?
- What distorts the "pictures in our head" of the outside world?
- How does Lippmann think we treat the picture in our head?
- Why does Lippmann think we resort to stereotypes? Or, how does Lippmann think we deal with a highly complex world?
- What is Lippmann's definition of a stereotype?
- Does Lippmann believe stereotypes are merely a neutral simplification?
- Does Lippmann believe stereotypes are shaped by the individual or by the broader culture?
- How are Lippmann's beliefs related to the theory of selective exposure? How does selective exposure shape the way we make our arguments?
- How does Lippmann believe we can overcome our stereotypes?
-"Pictures that we create/are given to us by society."
-we use them to make sense of the world by using these preconceived notions our culture has already defined for us.
-" a pattern of stereotype is not neutral.."we use preconceived notions
- broader culture defines stereotypes
- selective exposure= tendency to favour information that reinforces our pre-existing views= direct link
- overcome stereotypes: exploring, reporting and imagining the world?
This American Life: "Cops see it differently" (part I and II)
- How is "Cops see it differently" an example of agenda setting?
- Whose perspective is shared in this podcast?
- What is implicit bias? What does the podcast say about police and the implicit bias test? What's the difference between the gang units and regular police?
- because it is ultimately constructed by one journalist and her spin on the story- audience only gets told what to think about the situation not how to think about it?
- female/male cops, friend of cop, implicit bias trainer, police chief.
- implicit bias: underlying assumptions, a subconscious bias. ??
Crime portraits in the media vs. crime statistics
- According to the crime statistics, how are blacks represented in the media?
- What did the study in Columbus, Ohio say about newsworthiness and stereotypes?
"Revenge Killing" by Rachel Aviv in The New Yorker (*4 questions)
- How did Aviv frame Crawford (the man convicted of killing his child)?
- What aspects of Crawford's life did the Assistant D.A. Cox use, in order to frame him as guilty?
- What evidence does Aviv uses to persuade the reader?
- How does Aviv frame the death penalty in Caddo Parrish? What details does she focus on?
- How does Aviv frame Assistant D.A. Cox?
- Based on the discussion in class, does a journalist using a particular frame mean that the information is false?
Description of Harvard Implicit Bias Test: Weapons IAT
- What are the non-scientific ways of knowing?
- What are some of the aspects of the scientific method? Make sure you know what they mean and examples of each.
- What are the six tenets of the scientific method? Understand what each tenant means and an example of how it is applied.
- authority, 1st hand experience, 2nd hand experience, popularity, tradition, intuition, common sense
RadioLab: "Reasonable Doubt"
- What happened in the story?
- What should this story mean to journalists? News consumers? What does it mean for our certainty?
women raped and accuses wrong man
- Be able to describe the methods and evidence from the original agenda setting study by McCombs and Shaw in 1972.
- What does it mean to operationalize the "media agenda" and the "public agenda"? How were they operationalized?
- Is agenda setting an example of powerful or limited effects in media?
- What questions did Ray Funkhouser have about agenda setting? How did he test his question?
TED Talk: Battling Bad Science by Ben Goldacre
- What are some of the (reportedly) scientific findings, not living up to the principles of the scientific method?
- Which of the six tenants of the scientific method does Goldacre say drug companies are violating?
How does the scientific method apply to media professionals and media consumers?
What's the difference between facts and opinions?
On The Media: "The Convenient Untruths"
- What is selective exposure?
- How has the increase in media outlets affected selective exposure?
- How has the ability to manipulate evidence (like photoshopping images) affected selective exposure?
- What was the experiment that was referenced to demonstrate selective exposure?
What is mean world syndrome?
- What is the evidence for mean world syndrome?
- How are "light" and "heavy" viewers operationalized in mean world syndrome?
Science Isn't Broken (reading from week Sept. 3rd)
- In what ways is science subjective? What is p-hacking?
- What is the authors main argument about the scientific method?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Media Uses and Effects Exam 2
Media Uses and Effects Exam II
Mass Com Test 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
GEOL 1003 MIDTERM 2
HIST 1001 Exam 1