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Non Fluency Features
Terms in this set (11)
is another feature of speech that occurs when two words are spoken at speed and the running together or liaison of these two words produces a new sound. For instance, when a word starts with a vowel, there is sometimes a carry-over sound, which is a direct result of the previous word ending in a consonant. For example 'There is someone over there' might sound like 'There ris someone', where the 'r' is sounded at the start of the verb 'is', resulting in a word that sounds like 'ris'
are self-explanatory - they indicate a gap in something said, and are marked by a parenthesis with a number inside, to indicate the number of seconds of time that elapsed between speech: (2) would indicate a pause of two seconds. Mircopauses (.) are sometimes seen as the punctuation of speech as they can indicate the boundaries of clauses and unitary pieces of information; at other times they can exist to allow the speaker the opportunity to consider his or her next utterance.
Simply pauses of sounds that allow the speaker time to consider their next utterance by indicating that the speaker's turn is not yet over and so prevent interruptions. Examples of voiced pauses are 'erm', 'um', 'ah' and 'er'.
An often meaningless word is inserted into speech from habit or thinking time, e.g. 'right', 'well', 'you know'.
Often found in conversation. Repetition can indicate a speaker is searching for the right word and is unsure as to whether he or she has found it. It may be only a letter that is repeated and can indicate an element of uncertainty about the topic under discussion.
Common in spontaneous speech where the speaker begins an utterance then self corrects and rephrases.
Two speakers speaking at once will often break down the fluency of a conversation. They occur for various reasons: an end of turn may have been misjudged, someone may be keen to add to a point and wish to steal a turn, or there may be many participants who all hold equal status within the conversational group.
Interrupting the current topic of conversation to introduce further information relevant to a topic discussed previously.
Any variety of language that does not conform to the standard, prestige form of english accepted as the norm by society.
occurs when we put certain words together to make well-used phrases. A good example would be 'fish 'n chips'
refers to missing words, which are generally understood from the context of the speech.
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Spoken Word Features
English Language Glossary
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Types of Theory
Primary school words
Literary and Linguistic Toolkit