American Federal Government CH 1,2,3
Terms in this set (62)
institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled.
conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies of governments.
The ability to influence government and politics.
informed and active membership in a political community.
a form of government in which a single individual -- a king, queen, or dictator -- rules.
a form of government in which a small group -- landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants -- controls most of the governing decisions.
a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of kept public officials.
a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the government.
a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions.
a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it.
influence over a government's leadership, organization, or policies.
a system of government in which the populace selects representatives, who play a significant role in governmental decision making.
a system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies.
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.
freedom from governmental control.
a principle of constitutional government; a government who powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference.
Equality of opportunity
a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential.
the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of 'one person, one vote'
a principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people.
Majority rule/minority rights
the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority.
Articles of Confederation
America's first written constitution; served as the basis for America's national government until 1789.
a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government.
a framework for the Constitution introduced by Edmund Randolph, that called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state.
New Jersey Plan
a framework for the Constitution, introduced by William Paterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population
the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population.
the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that stipulated for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person.
Checks and balances
mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches; major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments.
the presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president.
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people.
Separation of powers
the division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making.
a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments.
specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress. (Article I, Section 8) and to the president. (Article II).
Article I, Sec. 8, of the constitution. (also known as the necessary and proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws 'necessary and proper' to carry them out.
having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses; distinguished from unicameral.
the power of the courts to review and, if necessary, declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional; the Supreme Court asserted the power in Marbury v. Madison.
Article VI of the Constitution, which states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or subdivision.
those who favored a strong national government and supported the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787.
those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government and who were opponents of the Constitution proper at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787.
a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay supporting ratification of the Constitution.
oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority.
a change added to a bill, law, or constitution.
federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent.
congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law.
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several Sates and with the Indian tribes." This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy.
authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes.
a system of government with a weak national government but strong states or provinces
a type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been uses strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue national defined goals. Also known as "intergovernmental cooperation"
a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments.
the system of government that prevailed in the US from 1789 to 1937, in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments
full faith and credit clause
provision from Article IV, Section1, of the constitution, requiring that the states normally honor the public arts and judicial decisions that take place in another state.
programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government
power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs
powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. Such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers.
necessary and proper clause
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, it provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to cary out its expressed powers.
power reserved to the state government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens
the principle that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas
privileges and immunities clause
provision from Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges.
powers, derived from the 10th Amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states.
the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government. This principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War.
regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government.
a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government.
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