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Chapter 2- Living Things
Terms in this set (67)
List the six characteristics that all living things share
All living things have a cellular organization, contain similar chemicals, use energy, respond to their surroundings, grow and develop, and reproduce
What is a cell?
The basic unit of structure and function in an organism
Describe the following chemicals found inside cells:
Water is the most abundant chemical in cells.
Nucleic acids are the genetic material in cells; the chemical instructions that direct the cells activities
What is a stimulus? List three examples
A change in organisms surroundings that causes the organism to react. Stimuli include changes in temperature, light, sound, and other factors
What is a response?
A response is an action or change in behavior
Differentiate between growth and development
Growth is the process of becoming larger. Development is the process of change that occurs during an organisms life to produce a more complex organism.
What is biogenesis?
The theory that living things arise from other living things through reproduction is called biogenesis.
Hundreds of years ago, what was the mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving things called?
What are organisms called who make their own food? List an example
Autotrophs. An example is a plant.
What are organisms called who cannot make their own food? List and example
Heterotrophs. Animals, mushrooms, and slime molds are some examples of heterotrophs.
What is the source of energy, either direct or indirect, of all living things?
What is the maintenance of stable internal conditions called?
How many kinds of organisms on earth have scientists identified?
More than 1 million
What is classification?
The process of grouping things based on their similarities
What is taxonomy and why is it useful?
The scientific study of how living things are classified is called taxonomy. Taxonomy is useful because once an organism is classified, a scientist knows a lot about that organism.
What naming system did Linnaeus use?
What is the first word in an organisms scientific name?
What is the second word of an organisms second name?
A group of similar organisms that mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.
What is a domain?
A domain is the highest level of organization and it is the most general
What is a species?
Each genus contains one or more species and it is the most specific.
How is a scientific name always written?
In Latin because it is an unspoken language
List three considerations for placing organisms into domains and kingdoms.
Their cell type, their ability to make food, and the number of cells and their bodies.
What are prokaryotes? list an example
Organisms whose cells lack a nucleus. An example is bacteria.
What is a nucleus?
A dense area in a cell that contains nucleic acids.
What are eukaryotes?
Organisms in the domain eukarya that differ from bacteria. They all have a nucleus.
What type of organisms are plants (autotroph or heterotroph)?
They are autotrophs because they make their own food.
What type of organisms are animals (autotrophs or heterotrophs)?
Heterotrophs because they can't make their own food
What are the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms?
How does a microscope makes small objects look bigger?
By using lenses to focus light. The lenses used in light microscopes are similar to the clear, curved pieces of glass or plastic used in eyeglasses
What is the difference in a simple microscope and a compound light microscope?
A simple microscope only has one lens. A compound light microscope has more than one lens
Who were the Dutch Eye glassmakers who made one of the first compound light microscopes?
Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek
What was Robert Hookes contribution to the study of cells?
Hooke made up the word cell by noticing that the cells look like tiny boxes
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek use his simple microscope to study?
Drops of lake water, scrapings from teeth and gums, and water from rain gutters
State how each of the following three German scientist contributed to the understanding of cells:
Matthias Schleiden concluded that plants are made out of cells.
Theodore Schwann concluded that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Rudlof Virchow concluded that cells come from cells.
State the cell theory.
A. All living things are composed of cells
B. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
C. All cells are produced from other cells
What is the shape of a hand lens?
Curved, not flat. The center of the lens is thicker than the outside. It is a convex lens.
What is the magnification of the first lens (the eyepiece lens) in a compound light microscope?
What is the resolution of a microscope?
The ability to distinguish individual parts of an object.
What are tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell?
What type of organism has a cell wall?
A plant cell
Of what is a cell wall made of and what is its function?
The cell wall is mostly made of a strong material called cellulose. A plants cell wall helps to protect and support the cell.
What type of cells have cell membranes?
All cells have cell membranes.
What is the function of the cell membrane?
The cell membrane controls what substances come into the cell and out of the cell.
What is the nucleus?
The brain of the cell
What is the function of the nucleus?
You can think of the nucleus as the cells control center, directing all of the cells activities
What keeps the material in the nucleus from spilling out?
How does the nucleus know how to direct the cell?
Strands, called chromatin, contain genetic material. They are the instructions for directing the cells nucleus.
What is the nucleolus?
A structure where ribosomes are made
Where is the cytoplasm? Describe the cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm is the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It is a clear, thick, gel like fluid
What are rod shaped mitochondria known as? What is their function?
Mitochondria are known as the power houses of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy. They are found in muscle cells.
Describe endoplasmic reticulum
A maze of passageways that carry proteins
What do these passageways do?
They carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another
What is the function of ribosomes?
They function as factories to produce proteins.
What are organelles that look like flattened sacks and tubes?
A Golgi body
What is the job of these sacs and tubes (golgi bodies)?
They receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, Package them, and distribute them into other parts of the cell.
What are the large green organelles found in only plant cells?
What do chloroplast do for the plant?
They capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
What are large water filled sacs floating in the cytoplasm?
Describe the difference in the large sacks of plant cells and animal cells.
Most plants have one large vacuole. Some animal cells do not have vacuoles, others do.
What can the large sacs store?
Food and water and other materials needed by the cell
What are lysosomes?
Small, round, structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.
What can the shape of a cell tell you?
The shape of a cell can tell you about its function.
What is tissue?
A group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.
Where is the cell wall?
Where is the cell membrane?
Where is the vacuole?
Be able to label the TCA cycle with correct substrates and key intermediates.
refer to the illustration above structure 1
What is the process of ATP?
How do proteins get into the Rough ER?
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