40 terms

BIO201 - Chapter 1

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The organizationally and functionally diverse, membranous or membrane-bounded, intracellular structures that are the defining feature of eukaryotic cells.
Organelles
The total of the chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism
A complex nucleoprotein material that makes up the chromosomes of eukaryotes.
Chromatin
Cells (e.g., plant, animal, protist, fungal) characterized by an internal structure based on organelles such as the nucleus, derived from eu-karyon, or true nucleus.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
Nucleoid
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic
An instrument that provides a magnified image of a tiny object.
Microscope
The poorly defined region of a prokaryotic cell that contains its genetic material.
Nucleiod
The form a virus assumes outside of a cell, which consists of a core of genetic material surrounded by a protein or lipoprotein capsule.
Virion
Structurally simple cells, including archaea and bacteria that do not have membrane-bounded organelles; derived from pro-karyon, or "before the nucleus."
Prokaryotic
Outside the body. Cells grown in culture are said to be grown in vitro; and studies on cultured cells are an essential tool of cell and molecular biologists.
in vitro
The process through which unspecialized cells become more complex and specialized in structure and function.
Differentiation
Measure of length equaling 10−6 meters.
Micrometer
Small, obligatory intracellular pathogens, that, unlike viruses, consist only of an uncoated circle of genetic material, RNA.
Viroids
The organelle that contains a eukaryotic cell's genetic material.
Nucleus
The term for viral DNA when it has been integrated into the DNA of its host cell's chromosome(s).
Provirus
Proposal, which is based on considerable evidence, that mitochondria and chloroplasts arose from symbiotic prokaryotes that took up residence within a primitive host cell.
Endosymbiont theory
Cells situated in various tissues of the body that constitute a reserve population capable of giving rise to the various cells of that tissue. Stem cells can be defined as undifferentiated cells that are capable of both

(1) self-renewal, that is, production of cells like themselves, and
(2) differentiation into two or more mature cell types.
Stem cells
Cells that are situated primarily in the bone marrow that are capable of both self-renewal and of giving rise to all types of blood cells.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
A type of cell that has virtually unlimited powers of differentiation, found in the mammalian blastocyst, which is an early stage of embryonic development comparable to the blastula of other animals.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells
The process through which nitrogen gas is chemically reduced and converted into a component of organic compounds.
Nitrogen fixation
The unit, equivalent to 0.1 nm, used to describe atomic and molecular dimensions.
Angstrom
The region of fluid content of the cytoplasm outside of the membranous organelles of a eukaryotic cell.
Cytosol
Small, obligatory intracellular pathogens that are not considered to be alive because they cannot divide directly, which is required by the cell theory of life.
Viruses
Organisms that have been widely used for research so that a great deal is known about their biology. These organisms have properties that have made them excellent research subjects. Such organisms include the bacterium, E. coli; the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae; the nematode, C. elegans; the fruit fly, D. melanogaster; the mustard plant, A. thaliana; and the mouse, M. musculus.
Model organisms
Theory of biological organization, which has three tenets:

1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells;
2. the cell is the structural unit of life;
3. cells only arise from the division of preexisting cells.
Cell theory
Measure of length equaling 10−9 meters.
Nanometer
All of the following individuals contributed to cell theory except:

Robert Hooke.
Matthias Schleiden.
Theodor Schwann.
Rudolph Virchow.
Robert Hooke.
Of the following structures, which is the smallest?

viroid

hydrogen atom

bacterium

mitochondrion
hydrogen atom
Of the following, which is the most primitive?




virus

eukaryote

prokaryote

mitochondrion
prokaryote
Cell theory includes all of the following except:




All organisms are composed of more or more cells.

The cell is the most primitive form of life.

The cell is the structural unit of life.

Cells arise by division of preexisting cells.
The cell is the most primitive form of life.
All of the following are basic properties of cells except:


Cells have nuclei and mitochondria.

Cells have a genetic program and the means to use it.

Cells are capable of producing more of themselves.

Cells are able to respond to stimuli.
The cell is the most primitive form of life.
The Archaea include all of the following except:




methanogens.

halophiles.

hyperthermophiles.

cyanobacteria.
cyanobacteria.
Model organisms representing diverse but typical prokaryotic and eukaryotic species include all but:


Drosophila melanogaster.

Arabidopsis thaliana.

Caenorhabditis elegans.

Homo sapiens.
Homo sapiens.
All of the following are features of prokaryotes except:




nitrogen fixation.

photosynthesis.

sexual reproduction.

locomotion.
sexual reproduction.
Which of the following may account for the small size of cells?




the rate of diffusion

the surface area/volume ratio

the number of mRNAs that can be produced by the nucleus

All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of viruses?


Viruses have been successfully grown in pure cultures in test tubes.

All viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites.

All viruses have either DNA or RNA as their genetic material.

Viruses probably arose from small fragments of cellular chromosomes.
Viruses have been successfully grown in pure cultures in test tubes.
A change in viral host range:


occurs if genes encoding viral attachment proteins mutate.

may allow additional species to contract a particular disease.

may allow different organs or tissues to become diseased during viral infection.

All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Bone marrow transplants are to blood transfusions as organ engineering is to _________.


organ transplant

organ transfusion

bone marrow transfusion

stem cell growth
organ transplant
The most powerful tool for determining evolutionary relationships among cell types is:


the study of cell shape.

the study of organelle shape.

the study of amino acid sequences in proteins.

the study of nucleic acid sequences in genomes.
the study of nucleic acid sequences in genomes
In order for eukaryotic cells as we know them to exist:


plasma membrane invagination needed to evolve.

endocytosis evolved.

symbiotic relationships and genetic information swapping evolved.

All of these are correct.
All of these are correct.
Carl Woese's evolutionary studies that led him to propose the three Superkingdom taxonomic system compared nucleotide sequences present in:

cytochrome oxidase genes.

16S rRNA genes

DNA polymerase genes

hexokinase genes
16S rRNA genes