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Appeals to False Authority
occurs when writers offer themselves or other famous authority they cite as sufficient warrant for believing a claim (ethical)
suggesting that serious wrong doings don't differ in kind from minor offenses (ethical)
Faulty Casualty/Post Hoc
assumption that because one event or action follows another the first necessarily causes the second (logical)
claims, reasons, or warrants that fail to connect logically; one point doesn't follow from another (logical)
when the last word of a sentence or clause becomes the first word at the beginning of the next sentence or clause
rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentence
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