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Fallacies and Rhetorical Devices

STUDY
PLAY
ad hominen
"to the man" attacking the character of people you disagree with (ethical)
scare tactics
stampede legitimate fears into panic or prejudice (emotional)
Either-Or
reduce options doe actions to only two choices(emotional)
Slippery Slope
today's tiny misstep as tomorrow's slid into disaster (emotional)
Sentimental Appeal
using tender emotions excessively to distract readers from fact (emotional)
Bandwagon Appeal
urging people to follow the same path everyone else is taking (emotional)
Appeals to False Authority
occurs when writers offer themselves or other famous authority they cite as sufficient warrant for believing a claim (ethical)
Dogmatism
the truth is self-evident to those who know better (ethical)
Moral Equivalence
suggesting that serious wrong doings don't differ in kind from minor offenses (ethical)
Hasty Generalization
an inference drawn from insufficient evidence (logical)
Faulty Casualty/Post Hoc
assumption that because one event or action follows another the first necessarily causes the second (logical)
Begging the Question
assuming as true the very claim that is disputed (logical)
Equivocation
play on words (logical)
Non Sequitur
claims, reasons, or warrants that fail to connect logically; one point doesn't follow from another (logical)
The Straw Man
attack an argument that isn't really there (logical)
Faulty Analogy
inaccurate or inconsequential comparisons between objects or concepts (logical)
Anadiplosis
when the last word of a sentence or clause becomes the first word at the beginning of the next sentence or clause
Analogy
a comparison between two things for the purpose of explanation
Anaphora
repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses
Antithesis
rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentence
Apostrophe
a turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person
Litotes
understatement for intensification
Metonymy
substitution of one word for another
Synecdoche
use of a part for the whole
Euphemism
an agreeable or non-offensive way to express harsh or unpleasant ideas
Paradox
an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense but that may yet have some truth in it
Alliteration
a repetition of the same sound beginning several words in a sequence
Allusion
a brief reference to a person, event, or place, or work of art
Parallelism
similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases or clauses
Rhetorical Question
a question asked merely for effect
Simile
comparison using like or as
Extended Metaphor
comparison without using like or as that continues through out a series of sentences in a paragraph