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AP US History

Labor Unions

makes sure people treated justly and protect worker, esp in large industrial companies ( the sweat of laborer lubricated the vast new industrial machine yet the wage workers did not share proportionately with their employers in the benefits of the big business)

Gilded Age

age of corruption

Knights of Labor

only excluded non-productive workers ( liquor dealers, pro gamblers, lawyer, bankers, stock brokers) (had many weird handshakes/ secret rituals)

HayMarket Square

meeting, someone threw dynamite/ bomb; sentenced anarchists (against gvmt) to be punished even though proven innocent; workers lashing out against bosses;


against government

poor working conditions + workers=

angry workers (incident of violence not unlikely that this would happen esp with labor unions)

American Federation of Labor; AF of L

wanted better working conditions ex: better wages, hours, working conditions

Samuel Gompers

capitalist- cigar maker; elected president of the AF of L from years 1886- 1924 all but one year

Why would industrialization be unsuccessful?

- working conditions
-democracy compromised

Why would industrialization be successful?

- labor unions

Sherman Anti- Trust Act of 1890

forbade combinations in restraint of trade without distinction of good and bad trusts; contrary to original intent- it used to curb labor unions or labor combinations that were deemed to be restraining trade

Pullman Strike


Henry Grady

"New South"

The impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America

- Agriculture declined as wage earning manufacturing increased
- Standards of living rose
- Lives were very regimented
- Women; got jobs, but paid less
- Delayed marriages and smaller families
- Foreign Exportation

Global Economy

all global economies are dependent on one another

Utilization of Natural Resources

burning of coal, iron, oil; "dirty energy" starts here

Massive Immigration

cheap unskilled labor
-1820- 1840; democratic nature of government- christian background, German
-1880-1890; non democratic nature- chinese, italians, irish, non religious

What was a major problem of the immigrants during the eighties and nineties?

people could be not paid, no benefits, harsh working conditions; americans could not relate to any of these people therefore making it harder to do anything to help them

Mass Production

Eli Whitney

New Technology during this time period...

cash register, stock ticker, typewriter, fridge car, electric dynamo, electric railroad

Alexander Graham Bell



made MANY new things some listed under new technology one of most important was THE lightbulb

Horizontal Integration

put your stocks in ours- creates a monopoly trust

Vertical Integration

producing everything for a good on your own from producing to marketing

Andrew Carnegie

vertical integration- steel company

John D. Rockefeller

horizontal integration- standard oil "Standard Oil Company"

JP Morgan

horizontal integration- banking



Oil is used in..


The Bessemer Process

William Kelly- "air boiling"

Gospel of Wealth

"God gave me my money because I am morally responsible with it"

Herbert Spencer

survival of the fittest concept of Gospel of Wealth

Social Darwinists

survival of the fittest

Reverend Russell Conwell

Acres of Diamonds Speech

Trust lawyers hid behind what amendment?


Iron Colt turns into

Iron Horse

Why was there such a big outburst of railroad construction?

Government subsides of land- "money and land"

Transcontinental Railroad

railroad is all over the country

Credit Mobiler

railroad scandal including: (congressman covered up)
1. Union Pacific Railroad
2. Central Pacific Railroad

Different Railroads

1. Northern Pacific Railroad
2.The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
3. Southern Pacific
4.Great Northern (no government subsidies; James Hill)

Central Pacific Railroad

started by Leland Stanford and Collis Huntington

What were some of the dangers from working on the railroads?

many people were killed by premature explosions. rough conditions-very hot and sweaty

Some people railroads going from no where to no where...

commonly caused bankruptcy (one of the leading factors of Great Depression)

"Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbuilt and other inventors created...

1. steel rails (steel= heavier load)
2. standard gauge
3. Westinghouse airbrake: easier way to stop train
4.Pullman Palace Cars "gorgeous traveling hotels"
6.double tracking
7.block signal

What was the main importance of the Revolution by Railroads?

1. It stimulated the economy (american goods,steel, coal, and transportation of people and goods)
2. Stimulated immigration
3.Time Zones "Railroad Standard Time"

What was some of the wrong doing in the Railroad Industry?

1. Jay Gould
2. stock- watering
3. promoters profits advertising
4. monopolies
5. widespread corruption (bribery)
6. pool- secret rebated

What is stock watering?

makes people pay more and the people profit the extra money

Similarity between- Knights of Labor and National Labor Movement?

included all workers in one big union

American Federation of Labor

association of self governing national union


division between federal, state, and local government


liked strong government

Grant Administration=


Cornering the Gold Market

Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
- Black Friday

Whiskey Rings

congressmen getting around high whiskey tariffs

Boss Tweed

powerful "giant" who controlled government because of his wealth- found a way to get 200 Million form the area *known for 'fixing elections'

Grant had

no political experience

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