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Music History Graduate School Exam Prep
Prep for your cumulative graduate school music history entrance exam by studying these key people, places, etc.
Terms in this set (328)
Pope Gregory I A.K.A. Gregory The Great (Roman Church)
Reign: 590 - 604 (5th Century)
Supposed creator of Gregorian Chant
Guido d' Arezzo (Italian Monk)
Dates: 991 - 1033 (11th Century)
Responsible for systematic and consistent application of the eight-mode system (Dorian, Phrygian, etc.)
Bernart da Ventadorn (France)
Dates: 1140 - 1190 (12th Century)
One of the most famous and prolific of all troubadours.
Adam de la Halle (France)
Dates: 1237?-1288 (13th Century)
12th and 13th Centuries
Performers of Troubadours Music, Expected to embellish and improvise.
12th and 13th Centuries
Southern France. Wrote Songs in Occitan (Related to French and Spanish)
Monophonic Sacred Music of the Medieval Christian Church
Plainchant named after the supposed creator Pope Gregory I
Medieval Roman Church
Type of recitation in which order is Antiphon (Plainchant) - Psalm Recitation - Antiphon
Music of the Divine Office
12th and 13th Centuries
Northern France. Wrote Songs in medieval French
12th - 14th Centuries
German version of Troubadours
14th - 16th Centuries
Continued traditions of Minnesingers
Sign used in early chant notation to indicate pitch
One note per syllable of text
Two or more notes per syllable (plainchant)
Five or more Notes per Syllable on long sustained vowels as in the Alleluia
Modes Used for plainchant which include: Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, and their Hypo's (8 total)
Group of six notes separated by whole step except 3rd and 4th note (by half-step).
Attributing distinct syllable to each note in a scale
Roman Mass and Office
Office is fixed schedule of prayer and psalms
featuring antiphons and plainchant. Mass
took place every day and was open to public
Sequence (Early Medieval)
repeated phrases are framed by individual phrase
Long melisma on final syllable in Alleluia
Plainchant formula used to recite the psalm
Liber Usualis (compiled in France by Abbey of Solesmes)
Features Early Medieval Chants
book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition
Musical or textual addition to existing plainchant
Many times at beginning or end. Sometimes within
Liturgical passage in chant theatrically portrayed
chanson de geste
Longest form of of troubadour music
8th and 9th Century
One of most important centers of polyphony
Notre Dame School
Most elaborate forms of organum from here
Wrote large quantities of Organa for liturgical year
Multiple notes in added voices run against
individual notes in the original chant
9th - 12th Centuries
Plainchant in one voice with at least one
additional voice above or below it
Organum where added voice runs parallel to original plainchant voice
Contemporary of Leonin, Added 3rd (triplum)
& 4th (quardruplum) voices to organum
Allowed composers to distinguish between
long and short notes by setting rhythmic mode
Brief polyphonic sections that can be substituted at will
into appropriate section of larger existing organum work
Late 12th, Early 13th Century
Polyphonic vocal work
12th, 13th Centuries
Consist of 1, 2, 3, or 4 voices. Freely Composed poetry
written in metered verse. Voices roughly same rhythm.
Franco of Cologne
Mid 13th Century
Introduced Franconian notation, precise system of
mensural notation. (Assigned meaning to note shapes).
mid- 13th Century
System where notes are given shapes to
distinguish rhythmic meaning.
Petrus de Cruce
Late 13th Century
Introduced Petronian notation. Refined
Franco's system (enabled greater subdivision)
14th, 15th Centuries
An isorhythmic tenor is based on a fixed rhythmic and melodic pattern that is repeated at least once, usually more.
14th, Early 15th Centuries
Rapid-fire voice outbursts in song
Philippe de Vitry (France)
1291 - 1361 (13th and 14th Centuries)
Composer and believed to have written Ars Nova
"New Art" style of music label of 14th Century French Music
1325 - 1397
Italian blind composer of the 14th Century
1300s or 14th Century Italian Music
Treatise. first surviving attempt to establish a system of rules for polyphony in classical music.
Plainchant melody (Principal Voice in Organum)
Organal (Additional) Voice in organum
Fixed Melody that serves as basis of composition
9th Century ?
Contains perhaps the oldest large collections
of two-part music in Europe
Roman de Fauvel
Prominent Ars Nova Work written by Gervias de Bus
Late Medieval, Renaissance
Notes were sharpened/flattened according
to various convention, such as raised leading
tone or avoiding cross-relations between voices
Instead of cadencing from major 6th to perfect octave,
L.C. goes from maj 6th - Perfect 5th - Perfect Octave.
Exp: Cadence in C = DG (M6) - DA (P5) - CC(P8)
Motet featuring isorhymic (tenor)
Messe de Notre Dame
Mass of Our Lady - Only 14th Century polyphonic
Setting of the Complete Mass Ordinary
Middle of 14th Century
Most important varieties of secular song in
France: Ballade, Virelai, Rondeau
Middle of 14th Century
Structure: A, A, B, D (Refrain)
Middle of 14th Century
Middle of 14th Century
Strophic with Ritornello at the end. Ritornello often
in contrasting meter.
Usually Deals with hunting, or lively scenes.
Usually for 3 voices with canonic upper voices and
"Brief Return" or Reprise.. ABACADA...
Prominent English composer. one of the first
first composers to set separate movements
of the Ordinary of the Mass
Most famous English Composer
Implemented full triadic harmony and
use of the "third" in music. Member of B.S.
Burgundian School (B.S.)
Active composers in the 15th century in what is now
northern and eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, centered on the court of the Dukes of Burgundy.
Famous Composer of 15th Century. Early Member of B.S. Wrote songs for court and of love and chivalry. Were easy to sing and were memorable
Famous composer. Influenced Dufay and Josquin des Prez.
Member of Franco-Flemish School.
French member of Burgundian School. Leading Figure after death of Dufay.
most famous composer of masses in Europe in the late 15th century. Member of Franco Flemish School.
Contemporary of Josquin. Member of Franco Flemish School.
First significant master of the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style who both lived in German-speaking areas.
Old Hall Manuscript
Largest complete source of 14th and 15th century sacred music.
is a technique of musical harmonization used in the late Middle Ages & early Renaissance, particularly by composers of the Burgundian School.
In its simplest form, it consists of the cantus firmus and two other parts a sixth and a perfect fourth below.
epic poems performed to simple monophonic melodies
by a professional class of jongleurs or ménestrels.
Usually recounted deeds of heroes, legends, etc.
Uses pre-existing music-parts as basis
such as motet parts for new mass
Composers abandoned isorhythmic
things such as cantus firmus. Were in
essence sacred madrigals.
15th, 16th Centuries
Popular Italian secular Song. Eventually
replaced by the madrigal.
Ottaviano Petrucci (Italian)
Famous Printer. Printed the first book of polyphony using movable type published numerous works by the most highly regarded composers Such as Josquin.
Founder of Venetian School (V.S.)
Jacob Arcadelt (F.F.)
Composer of Secular Vocal Music.
Famous for early madrigals
Wrote a book of madrigals that was widely printed.
Cipriano de Rore (F.F.)
one of the most prominent composers of
madrigals in the middle of the 16th century
Style was experimental, chromatic, and highly expressive
Italian Composer that wrote
Italian Composer who wrote madrigals and
used chromaticism not seen again until the
Style marked the transition from Renaissance style
to the Baroque Period. Developed Renaissance polyphony
and basso continuo
Orlando di Lasso (F.F.) and Counter-Reformation
chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of F.F.
one of the three most famous and influential musicians
in Europe at the end of the 16th century
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Italian)
Late Renaissance (Counter-Reformation)
Best known composer of Roman School
culmination of Renaissance polyphony
Dissonances landed on "weak beats"
Claudin de Sermisy
French composer renowned for chansons
in the 16th Century
German composer significant in development of musical forms based on Protestant Hymns
Tomas Luis de Victoria
Famous 16th Century Spanish Composer
and one of the most important composers
of the Counter Reformation
English composer famous for his
English composer. Foremost member of the
English Madrigal School.
English Composer of the Renaissance. Styles included
sacred and secular polyphony, keyboard, and
Style or performance practice in a capella
vocal music later half of 16th century
Harmonice Musices Odhecaton
anthology of secular songs published by
a collection of Italian madrigals fitted with
Parisian (French) Chanson
abandoned the formes fixes and
were in a simpler, more homophonic style
16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, et al
In revolt of Roman Catholic Practices and led to Protestant Churches
volume containing the Book of Psalms
the substitution of one text for another
without substantial change to the music
period of catholic revival beg. with the Council of Trent
formal technique where material is
altered during repetition
type of late Renaissance and mostly early Baroque instrumental composition
It may explore the permutations of a given motif
6th-century multipart vocal setting of a literary canzone
and a 16th- and 17th-century instrumental composition
virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument
a free musical composition structured
according to the composer's fancy
English Renaissance composer
Represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian
School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to
Baroque idioms. Italian Composer.
Separated Choirs in the Venetian polychoral style where
spatially separate choirs singing in alternation
Sonata pian'e forte
Florentine Camerata (Florence, Spain)
Late Renaissance/Baroque 1577-1582
Group of most famous men in Florence
that gathered to discuss and guide trends
in the arts (music, drama, etc.)
Giulio Caccini (Italy)
1551 - 1618 Baroque
Italian composer, teacher, singer,
instrumentalist. A Founder of Opera
Jacopo Peri (Italy)
Composer and Singer. Often called the
inventor of opera. Works include Dafne
(1597) and Euridice (1600)
Vincenzo Galilei (Italy)
lutenist, composer, and music theorist
Influential in establishment of end of
Renaissance/Beginning of Baroque
Claudio Monteverdi (Italy)
Baroque Born 16th Century/Died 1643
marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.
Wrote one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo
Francesco Cavalli (Italy)
1602 - 1676 Baroque
Influential in rise of mid-17th century
opera. Used small orchestra of strings
and basso continuo.
Giacomo Carissimi (Italy)
Roman School of Music.
Heinrich Schutz (German)
1585 - 1672 Baroque
Most famous German
composer before J.S. Bach.
Dietrich Buxtehude (German-Danish)
Organist and Composer. Represent a
central part of Baroque Organ repertoire.
Influenced J.S. Bach and Others.
Jean-Baptiste Lully (Italian Born-French)
French composer. chief master of the
French Baroque style.
Alessandro Scarlatti (Italy)
1660 - 1725 Baroque
Famous for operas and cantatas. Founder
of Neapolitan school of opera.
Henry Purcell (English)
Organist and composer of Baroque
secular music. Unique English Composer.
Johann Sebastian Bach Vocal (German)
Sacred and Secular Works for Choir. Composed Cantatas for every
Sunday and holiday of church year. Also secular cantatas. Large scale
choral-orchestral works: St. Matthew Passion, St. John Passion, etc.
Jean-Phillipe Rameau (France)
1683 - 1764 Baroque
Composer and Music Theorist. Dominant
composer of French opera. Wrote
Treatise on Harmony (1722)
George Freidrich Handel (German)
Famous for operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Key works: Messiah (1742), Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks
At least one instrument capable of playing chords must be included. The chord instrument plays indicated bass notes and fills in notes on top of it. (Improvised accompaniment)
Doctrine of the Affections
One Unified affect(tion) should be aimed
at by a single piece/movement of music.
theatrical performance with music performed between
acts of plays to celebrate special occasions.
Late 16th Century Italy Baroque
A cappella madrigals sung consecutively, generally
telling a story, important in origins of opera.
style from Gioseffo Zarlino that looks like
style of Palestrina. (approaching and
leaving dissonances properly)
Distinguished from prima prattica and
encourages more freedom from
limitations on dissonance practices
Le Nuove Musiche
Collection of monodies and songs for solo
voice and basso continuo by Giulio Caccini
Written in seconda prattica style.
Solo vocal style distinguished by having a single melodic
line and instrumental accompaniment.
Baroque opera by Claudio Monteverdi with a libretto
of Orpheus descending to Hades trying to bring back
Eurydice, his dead bride.
vocal composition with instrumental
accompaniment, typically in several movements.
Often involving a choir in sacred cantatas.
Large Musical composition including an
orchestra, choir, and soloists. Typically
deals with sacred topics and tells a story
Sung musical settings, normally choral, covering
the Passion of Jesus... Singing of the Gospels of the
events leading up to the Crucifixion of Jesus.
Either petits motet or Grand Motets.
Jean-Baptiste Lully was the most
important composer of G.M.'s
Bel Canto (Italian)
17th Century Baroque
Sophisticated model of "beautiful Singing"
that evolved from operatic and sacred
Form of Recitative
Accompanied by only continuo
Form of recitative using
style of solo opera singing between
recitative and aria. literally means airy.
da capo aria
Musical form sung by a soloist with
instruments. ABA-Ternary Form
Bassline/harmonic pattern is repeated
as the basis of piece underneath variation
French Opera genre based on stories from
classical mythology. Introduced by JB Lully
French opera genre containing more dance
music and various plots open for comedy
genre of music where groups of instruments or voices share a melody
usually in alternation, almost always over basso continuo.
Traite de l'harmonie
"Treatise on Harmony" Written by Jean-Philippe Rameau. Describes music and how to write it based on modern
One of most important composers of keyboard music
in the late Renaissance and Baroque periods.
Johann Jakob Froberger (German)
Developed keyboard suite genre. wrote
some earliest examples of program music
Francois Couperin (French)
1668 - 1733 Baroque
Famous composer, organist
Archangelo Corelli (Italian)
1653 - 1713 Baroque
Violinist and Composer of
1658 - 1709 Baroque
Contributed to development of the
Antonio Vivaldi (Italy)
One of greatest Baroque composers.
Known especially for his instrumental
concertos, especially violin, & sacred choral
Dietrich Buxtehude (German-Danish)
Organist and Composer. His organ
repetoire represent a central part of the
standard organ repetoire.
Johann Sebastian Bach Instrumental
Works Include: Brandenburg Concerto, Well-Tempered Clavier,
Cello Suites, Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor
Georg Telemann (German)
prelude and fugue
prelude before fugue. Fugue consists of
theme passed from voice to voice, etc.
Music Form written for two solo melodic
instruments and basso continuo.
sonata da chiesa
generally consists of of four movements. Slow-fast-slow-Fast order.
2nd mvt- fugal allegro. 3rd and 4th resembled sarabande and gigue
sonata da camera
instrumental pieces set into 3 or 4 movements.
beginning with prelude (small sonata)
short liturgical composition for organ
using a chorale tune as basis.
Music Material passed between small
group of soloist and full orchestra
Musical work in three parts of movements
where one solo instrument is accompanied by orchestra
recurring passage in baroque music. The first or final movement
Musical form in two parts. Parts are complimentary
in style and first ends in half-cadence, needing an answer
Piece of orchestral music in three-movements
Structure. Fast-slow-fast order.
French Baroque style of ornamentation.
Arpeggiated texture in instrumental Music. Usually
French Baroque Music
Form of musical notation indicating instrument
fingering rather than musical pitches.
System of tuning which slightly compromises the pure
intervals of 'just intonation' to meet other requirements
of the system
Instrumental composition that "searches
out" the key or mode of a following piece.
multipart vocal setting of a literary
canzone and a 16/17th century
type of musical composition in which variation on a
repeated short harmonic progression, often involving a
Usually written in triple meter based on
bass ostinato in serious character.
Ordered set of instrumental or orchestral pieces.
normally performed in a concert setting rather than as
an accompaniment, and may be extracts from a play,
opera, ballet, etc.
virtuosic piece of music usually for a
keyboard or plucked string instrument.
features fast-moving, lightly fingered
virtuosic passages and sections.
Domenico Scarlatti (Italy)
Composer Influential in classical style.
Mainly known for many keyboard sonatas.
North German School
Popular organ school in the 17th century
C.P.E. Bach (German)
musician and composer. A founder of classical style
composing in the Rococo and Classical Periods.
Giovanni Sammartini (Italy)
18th Century Classical
Teacher of Gluck and Highly regarded by
J.C. Bach. Oranist and Composer. Influnetial in
formation of concert symphony.
both orchestral techniques pioneered by the court
orchestra of Mannheim, as well as composers who wrote
music for that orchestra.
Johann Stamitz (Czech)
Composer and violinist. Music reflects the
transition of the baroque period to the
School of teaching/style of Mozart, Haydn
J.C. Bach (German)
Influenced concerto style of Mozart. Important
Giovanni Pergolesi (Italy)
One of most important composers of
opera buffa (comic opera). Also wrote
Genevan phliospher, writer
and composer of 18th
Gay and Pepusch
Writter and Arranger of The Beggar's Opera, an example
of a opera genre called satirical ballad opera. These type
of operas are without recitative and are meant to shame
audiences/society into improvement, usually comically.
Cristoph Willibald Gluck
Famous opera composer. Wanted to return opera to focusing on
human drama and passions and making words and music of equal
importance. Writer of Don Juan and Orfeo ed Euridice.
W. A. Mozart
One of most important composers of classical period. He composed
operas, concertos, string quartets, symphonies, and piano sonatas.
Lorenzo da Ponte
Venetian Opera Librettist. Wrote text for such operas as
Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro, and Cosi fan tutte
Made important contributions to symphony and the
string quartet. Court musician for the Esterhazy family.
Was a close friend of Mozart and a teacher of Beethoven.
Best known for piano sonatas and collection of piano studies, Gradus
ad Parnassum. Had influence on Beethoven.
Ludwig van Beethoven
1770-1827 Classical and Romantic
Crucial in transition from Classical to Romantic Period. Studied with Haydn. Gradually
went deaf. Wrote 9 symphonies, Eroica, Piano sonatas, a single opera, etc.
Intellectuals sought to mobilize the power
of reason to advance society/knowledge.
Important figures include Newton, John
Locke, Voltaire, et al.
18th Century Late Baroque
Artistic movement and style as a reaction against the
symmetry and strict regulations of the Baroque. Import-
ant figures include Jean Philippe Rameau and Daquin.
Simplified contrapuntal style and became more melody
driven as opposed to pattern/counterpoint driven.
18th Century Classical
Developed in Germany. Style of music
inteded to express "true/natural" feelings
Sturm and Drang
Storm and Stress. Emotional extremes
given free expression
Exposition, Development, Recap
Scored almost always for orchestra. Often tonal works
in four movements with the first in sonata form.
About 45 players.
It standardized instrumentation.
18th Century Classical
Generally lighthearted & for small ensemble
Ensemble of 4 string players or piece
written for such a group.
A-Repeat, B-Repeat (AABB)
minuet and trio
Social dance of French origin usually in 3/4 time. Usually
2nd or 3rd movement in a symphony.
would replace minuet in multimovement
work and would be much quicker in tempo
Like baroque ritornello, constant return of
ABACABA-with C being extended and
theme and variations
Music material is repeated in altered form
opera that contains spoken dialogue and arias. Not always
lighthearted. A famous example is Carmen.
Genre of opera with spoken dialogue, alternated with
ensembles, songs, ballads, arias that were often
strophic or folk'like.
18th century Classical
Satirical spoken dialogue interspersed with songs.
Franz Schubert (Austrian)
Romantic Composer. Wrote 9 symphonies
including "Unfinished symphony."
Felix Mendelssohn (German)
Romantic composer, pianist, organist, and conductor.
Works: A Midsummer Night's Dream, Italian Symphony
Hector Berlioz (French)
Best known for Symphonie Fantastique & significant contributions
to modern orchestra with his Treatis on Instrumentation
Robert Schumann (German)
Romantic Composer. Wrote 4 symphonies
Attempted suicide. Placed in mental
Institution at own request.
John Field (Irish)
Studied under Clementi.
Best known for originating the piano
nocturne. These influenced Chopin
Frederic Chopin (Polish)
Composer and Piano Virtuoso. Made innovations to
to pieces and wrote important piano literature. The
pieces are often techinically demanding.
Franz Liszt Hungarian
Composer and Virtuoso Pianist. Invented the symphonic
poem. Strongly influenced by Berlioz and Paganini.
Johannes Brahms (German)
Strongly influenced by Beethoven. Wrote 4
symphonies. Bold in exploration of
harmony and rhythnm.
Anton Bruckner (Austrian)
Important in defining Austro-German Romanticism. His
pieces consisted of new dissonances, unprepared
modulations, and rich harmonies.
Antonin Dvorak (Czech)
Employed idioms of folk music of Moravia and his native
Bohemia. Known for nationist views. Popular works
include New World Symphony, "American" String Quartet
Wrote popular concert and theatrical
music: Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty,
Composer, Pianist, and Organist known
for his improvisation.
Gioacchino Rossini (Italian)
Best known for operas that include: II barbier di Siviglia
(The Barber of Seville), Guillaume Tell (William Tell), etc.
Known for his long-flowing melodic lines. He is the
quintessential composer of bel canto opera.
A leading composer of bel canto opera.
Works: Don Pasquale, Lucia di Lammermor
Mainly opera composer. Writer of Rigolletto, he is one
of the most influential composers of the 19th century.
Used musical theater as a politcal tool.
Carl Maria von Weber (German)
One of first significant composers of the
Romantic school. Wrote Der Freischutz, regarded
as the 1st German "nationalist" opera.
Richard Wagner (German)
Known for operas. Compositions known for complex texture, rich harmonies, and
orchestration, and use of leitmotifs. Who wrote both music and libretto. Works:
Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walkure, Wedding March (Bridal Chorus) from Lohengrin
Giacomo Meyerbeer (German)
Opera composer and first great exponent
of "grand opera."
Georges Bizet (French)
Mainly operatic composer. Most well
known for writing Carmen.
A theme, melody, or thematic material occurs in more
than one movement as a unifying device.
Music strictly for music's sake; not intended to have a
specific meaning or be strictly "about" anything.
Attempts to musically render an extra-
musical narrative or idea.
Leitmotif/Theme is developed by changing the theme by
permutation (transposition, modulation, et. al)
tone (symphonic) poem
piece of orchestral music in a movement in which
content of a non-musical idea or story is illustrated.
Often a narrative set to music.
Group of songs designed to be performed in a sequence
as a single entity, and unified by a narrative or common persona
Piece designed to evoke a character, mood
or moment. Exp: Schumann's Carnaval
19th century Romantic
Opera Genre generally in 4 or 5 acts. Have
spectactular design and stage effects and
noramlly with plots on historic events.
Theatre in London well known for hosting several of
early Gilbert and Sullivan operas.
Less grandiose than grand opera, but
w/out spoken dialoque of opera comique
Work of art that makes use of all or many art forms. Wagner known
for use and implementation.
Recurring them, associated with a
particular person, place, or idea.
Greatly larger than the classical orchestra
and features advances in instrumentation.
Hugo Wolf (Austrian)
1860-1903 Late Romantic
Well known for his lieder songs.
Gustav Mahler Austrian
1860-1911 Late Romantic
Composer and leading conductor of his generation.
Was a bridge between romantic and modern style.
Richard Strauss (German)
1864-1949 Late Romantic/Early Modern
Known for operas such as Salome and
1804-1857 Romantic Nationalism
Influenced future Russian composers and produced
distinct Russian style. His Patriotic Song became anthem
The Mighty Handful (The Five)
Also known as "The Five." A circle of composers that met
with the aim to produce a Russian kind of art music, as
opposed to imitated older European music.
Modest Mussorgsky (Russian)
1839-1881 Late Romantic/Nationalist
One of "The Five." Innovator of Russian music. Strove to
achieve unique Russian musical identity. Music
inspired by Russian history, folklore, and themes.
Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian)
1844-1908 Late Romantic/Nationalist
Member of "The Five." Master of orchestration.
Nationalist. Pieces include Scheherazade, Capriccio
Espagnol, Russian Easter Festival Overture.
1872-1915 Late Romantic/Modern
Developed an increasingly atonal musical system,
presaging twelve-tone composition and other serialism.
Bedrich Smetana (Czech)
1824-1884 Late Romantic/Nationalist
Known as the father of Czech music.
(Developed Czech musical style).
1854-1928 Late Romantic/Nationalist
Devoted to creating a unique modern
musical style. Inspired by folk music.
Edvard Grieg (Norwegian)
1843-1907 Late Romantic
Composer and Pianist. Best known for his Piano
Concerto in A minor, and incidental music to Peer Gynt
Jean Sibelius (Finnish)
1865-1957 Late Romantic/Nationalist
Important role in formation of Finnish
Edward Elgar (English)
1857-1934 Late Romantic
Best known works include Enigma Variations, Pomp &
Circumstance Marches, The Dream of Gerontius.
Manuel de Falla (Spanish Andalusian)
1876-1946 Late Romantic
One of Spain's most important composers of the first
half of the 20th century.
Camille Saint-Saens (French)
1835-1921 Late Romantic
Composer, organist, conductor, pianist.
Gabriel Faure (French)
1845-1924 Late Romantic/Modern
Important 20th Century French composer. Best known
for his Nocturnes for piano, Clair de lune. Taught by
Giacomo Puccini (Italian)
1858-1924 Late Romantic
Operas among most frequently performed which include
La boheme, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, Turandot.
1875-1900s Late Romantic
Italian literary movement and was associated with
post-romatic operatic tradition.
Claude Debussy (French)
Most prominent impressionist. Music noted for its
sensory component and for not forming around on key
Maurice Ravel (French)
1875-1937 (Twentieth Century)
Known especially for his melodies, orchestral and
instrumental textures and effects. Works include Bolero,
Jeux d'eau Miroirs, Le tombeau de Couperin, etc.
Erik Satie (French)
1866-1925 20th Century
Precursor to minimalist movement
Colourful figure in the early 20th century
Les six francais
Group of six composers working in France
whose music was often seen as a reaction
against Wagner's style and impressionism
Darius Milhaud (French)
1892-1974 20th Century
Member of Les Six. One of most prolific
composers of 20th century. Influenced by
jazz and makes use of polytonality.
Arthur Honegger (Swiss)
1892-1955 20th Century
Member of Les Six. Most popular piece is
probably Pacific 231, which attempts to
imitate the sound of a steam locomotive.
Francis Poulenc (French)
1899-1963 20th Century
Member of Les Six. Composed solo piano
music, oratorio, choral music, opera,
balllet music, and orcherstral music.
Gustav Holst (English)
1874-1934 20th Century
Most well known for The Planets. His work
influenced Wagner, Strauss, and fellow
student Ralph Vaughan Williams.
Ralph Vaughn Williams (Eng
1872-1958 20th Century
English composer of
music, opera, choral music,
and film scores.
Bela Bartok (Hungarian)
1881-1945 20th Century
Top 20th Century composer and important Hungary
composer. Considered a founder of ethnomusicology.
Zoltan Kodaly (Hungarian)
1882-1967 20th Century
Composer and ethnomusicologist. Known for Kodaly
Method, an approach to music education.
Carl Orff (German)
1895-1982 20th Century
Composer. Best known for cantata Carmina Burana.
Developed influential method of musican ed for children
Benjamin Britten (English)
1913-1976 20th Century
Composer, Conductor, and Pianist.
Central figure of 20th Century British
Classical music. Wrote Peter Grimes opera
Gian-Carlo Menotti (Italian-American)
1911-2007 20th Century
Composer and Librettist. Wrote the Christmas
opera Amahl and the Night Vistors
Sergei Prokofiev (Russian)
1891-1953 20th Century
Composer, pianist, and conductor. Mastered numerous
musical genres. Works: Peter and the Wolf, Romeo and Juliet (ballad),
Love for Three Oranges, Lieutant Kije (suite)
Dimitri Shostakovich (Russian)
1906-1975 20th Century
Soviet Russian composer. Developed a
hybrid style influenced by Prokofiev and
Stravinskiy, heard in Lady Macbeth...
Charles Ives (American)
1874-1954 20th Century
One of first internationally renown American composers
Experimented with polytonality, polyrhythm, and tone
clusters, foreshadowing atonality and 20th century
Arnold Schoenberg (Austrian)
1874-1951 20th Century
Associated with expressionist movement
Leader of Second Viennese School.
Developed 12-tone technique (pioneer of atonality).
Alban Berg (Austrian)
1885-1935 20th Century
Member of Second Viennese School. Pioneer of atonality
Writer of Wozzeck opera.
Anton Webern (Austrian)
1883-1945 20th Century
Composer and Conductor. Member of Second Viennese
school. A Best-known exponent of 12-tone technique.
His work later became known as total serialism.
Paul Hindemith (German)
Composer, violinist, theorist, and conductor. Created
his own musical system that is tonal but not-diatonic.
Most famous work is Symphonic Metmamorphosis of
Themes by Carl Maria von Weber.
Igor Stravinsky (Russian)
1882-1971 20th Century
Composer, Pianist, and Conductor. One of the most inflential composers of 20th
century. Ballets include The Firebird, Petrushka, and the riot provoking The Rite of
Aaron Copeland (American)
1900-1990 20th Century
Instrumental in forging distinct American Style of
composition. Works include: Appalachian Spring, Billy
the Kid, Rodeo, Fanfare for the Common Man.
Elliot Carter (American)
B. 1908 (20th Century)
Studied with Nadia Boulanger. Style
has included neoclassical and atonal
pieces. Has been performed worldwide.
Virgil Thomson (American)
1896-1989 20th Century
Instrumental in development of
"American Sound." Desribed as modernist
Iannis Xenakis (French Composer)
1922-2001 20th Century
Pioneered use of mathematical models in music and
influencial in development of electronic music.
Olivier Messiaen (French)
1908-1992 20th Century
Music was rhythmically complex. Experimented with
parametrisation, associated with "total serialism."
Many exotic influences in his music.
Pierre Boulez (French)
B. 1925 20th Century
Developed integral serialism.
Karlheinz Stockhausen (German)
1928-2007 20th and 21st Centuries
Most important and controversial composers of 20th
and 21st centuries. Known for electronic music, aleatory
(controlled chance) in serial composition, and musical spatialization.
Edgar Varese (French and American)
1883-1965 20th Century
Music emphasizes timbre and rhythm.
Inventor of the term "organized sound."
Known as the "Father of Electronic Music."
Milton Babbitt (American)
1916-2011 20th Century
Noted for serial and electronic music.
John Cage (American)
1912-1992 20th Century
Pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and
non-standard use of musical instruments. 4'33.
Luciano Berio (Italian)
1925-2003 20th Century
Noted for experimental work (Sinfonia
for voices and orchestra) and pioneering
work in electronic music.
George Crumb (American)
B. 1929 20th Century
Composer of contemporary classical music.
Noted as explorer of unusual timbres, alternative forms
of notation, & extended instrumental/vocal techniques
1923-2006 20th Century
Composer of contemporary classical
Krzysztof Penderecki (Polish)
B. 1933 20th Century
Avant-garde Threnody to the Victims of
Hiroshima brought him international
attention. Later encompassed post-Romantic idiom.
Steve Reich (American)
B. 1936 20th Century
Minimalist. Innovations include tape
loops for phasing patterns, and use of
simple, audible processes.
Terry Riley (American)
B. 1935 20th Century
Minimalist. Work deeply influenced by
jazz and indian classical music.
Philip Glass (American)
B. 1937 20th Century
Minimalist. Very influential in the 20th Century
European classical music in the late 19th Century and through middle
of 20th century. Composered favored short music forms such as
nocturne, and prelude, and uncommon scales and devices such as
whole-tone scales and extended harmonies.
Beginning of 20th Century
Composers used atonality and serialism to free themselves
from traditional tonality (and express freely).
Western movements that drew inspiration from
"classical" art. In music, was a response to German Modernism
as composers claimed mankind is inherently "diatonic" and 'tonal"
Music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
12-tone technique- Ensures all 12 notes in the chromatic
scale sound as often as another in a piece of music through
use of 12 tone rows.
Technique that uses a series of values to manipulate
different musical elements.
Expressionist vocal technique between singing and speaking. Close
to speech because it does not emphasise any particular pitches.
Technique that involves distributing a melody to
several instruments, rather than to just one instrument
Use of more than one key simultaneously.
Technique of using the diatonic scale without the limitation
of functional tonality.
Borrows ideas form prehistoric peoples.
Form of electroacoustic music that utilities acousmatic sound as a compositional resource.
Music that employs electronic musical instruments
and electronic music technology.
Music composed for some
Aleotoric music, which is music chosen
by chance. For example, pitches and key
may be chosen, but the rhythms may be
selected by chance.
Work is set out to expose the essence, essentials
or identity of a subject through eliminating all
non-essential forms, features, or concepts.