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Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
Memory
any system-human, animal, or machine-that encodes, restores and retrieves information
Information-processing model
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored and retrieved.
Encoding
One of the 3 basic tasks of memory, involving the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the memory system
Storage
One of the 3 basic tasks of memory, involving the retention of encoded material over time
Retrieval
3rd basic task of memory, involving the location and recovery of info from memory
Eidetic Imagery
An especially clear and persistent from of memory that is quite rare; sometimes known as as "photographic memory"
Sensory Memory
The first of three memory stages, preserving brief sensory impressions of stimuli
Working Memory
The second of three memory stages, and the most limited in capacity. It preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal
Long-term Memory
The 3rd of three memory stages, with the largest capacity and longest duration; LTM stores material organized according to meaning
Chunking
Organizing pieces of info into a smaller number
Maintenance Rehearsal
A working memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory.
Elaborative Rehearsal
A working-memory process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM.
Acoustic Encoding
the conversion of information, esp semantic information, to sound patterns in working memory
Levels-of-processing theory
The explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long-term memory (more deeply "processed") will be remembered better
Procedural Memory
A division of LTM that stores memories for how things are done
Declaritive Memory
A division of LTM that stores explicit info; also known as fact memory; has two subdivisions: episodic memory and semantic memory
Episodic Memory
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores memory for personal events, or "episodes"
Semantic Memory
A subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts
Engram
The physical changes in the brain associated with a memory; also known as memory trace
Anterograde Amnesia
the inability to form memories for new info
Consolidation
The process by which short-term memories are changed to long=term memories over a period of time
Retrograde Amnesia
The inability to remember information previously stored in memory
Flashbulb Memory
A clear and vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event
Implicit Memory
a memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness
Explicit Memory
Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled
Retrieval Cues
stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior
Priming
A technique for cuing implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory
Recall
A retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information
Recognition
A retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented
Encoding specificity principle
The doctrine that memory is encoded and stored with specific cues related to the context in which it was formed. The more closely the retrieval cues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better it will be remembered
Mood-congruent memory
A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (are congruent with)one's mood
TOT phenomenon
The inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory. "On the tip of the tongue."
Transcience
The importance of a long-term memory, based on the idea that long-term memories gradually fade in a strength over time.
Forgetting Curve
A graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time for a certain batch of material, such as a list of nonsense syllables. The typical forgetting curve is steep at first, becoming flatter as time goes on
Absent-mindedness
forgetting caused by lapses in attention
Blocking
Forgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrieved. usually caused by interference