GOVT2306 Chapter 1
Terms in this set (69)
What are four racial groups identified as components of the Texas population, and what percent of the population do each represent?
Whites- 45&, Latinos- 38%, African Americans- 12%, Asians- 4%
Which political party is dominant in Texas, and why is it more conservative than it used to be?
Republican party; Tea party influence
What is the definition of Daniel Elazar's moralistic political culture, and what is its origin?
The belief that government should be active in promoting the public good and that citizens should participate in politics and civic activities that ensure good.
Origin: Puritans sought to create the Good Society in New England
What is the definition of Daniel Elazar's individualistic political culture, and what is its origin?
The belief that government should limit its role to providing order in society, so that citizens can pursue their economic self- interests
Origin: Middle states, sought material wealth and personal freedom through commercial activities
What is the definition of Daniel Elazar's traditionalistic political culture, and what is its origin?
The belief that government should be dominated by political elites and guided by tradition
Origin: South, reflecting values of the slave plantation economy
Why is Texas characterized as having a "traditionalistic individualistic culture?"
Political elites have a large voice in how the state is run, taxes are low, and few social services dominated
What fact illustrates the one-party Republican domination of Texas government?
Between 2002 and 2014, all statewide elected offices were controlled by Republicans
What is "provincialism," and how was it weakened?
A narrow, limited, and self-interested view of the world often associated w/ rural values and notions of the government
Weakened by the growing influence of minorities, women, and gays; instate politics- increasing
What two groups are generally weak in Texas which contributes to the business domination of Texas politics?
Labor unions and groups that offer alternatives to business perspective
A distinctive feature of Texas is its immense size. What are its dimensions north to south, and east to west?
north to south: 801 miles
east to west: 773
What are five distinct areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain?
Blackland Belt, Rio Grande Plain, Pine Belt, Post Oak Belt, Coastal Prairies
What is the dominant city of the northern great plains in Texas, and its economy?
Amarillo- ranching and petroleum production
What is the dominant city of the southern great plains in Texas, and its economy?
Lubbock- agriculture and cotton production
In the Basin and Range Province, why is Big Bend country called what it is?
The Rio Grande River surrounds it on 3 sides as the river makes its southward swing
What political party dominates the border area?
What does the term "creative destruction" mean and its significance?
Capitalism was an economic system that underwent periodic waves of transformation fueled by technological innovations in production and distribution
Provide a useful way to think about how it shapes and reshapes the economy
What 3 major waves of technological change in the Texas economy?
1. centered on production of cotton, cattle, and their distribution by railroad system
2. grew out of the oil system
3. development of the high-tech digital economy
What 3 technological changes promoted the growth of cotton in Texas?
1. 1870's barbed wire which enabled farmers to protect cotton from cattle
2. Railroads which made farming a national marker
3. New plow which made it easier to dig up the prairie soil and increase productivity
What were 2 important consequences of the farm tenant or share cropping system?
1. condemned many rural Texans to lives of social and economic dependency
2. helped fuel radical political discontent in rural areas, sparking the Grange and Populist movements
What were the statistics illustrating farming and ranching and support of those two activities in the Texas economy in 1940? Now?
1940: 23% of population worked on farms and ranches; 17% supplied or helped with farms
Now: Less than 2% live on farms and ranches; 15% provide support, processing or distribution services to agriculture
Where and when was Spindletop? What is its significance?
3 miles south of Beaumont along the Gulf Coast on January 10, 1901.
Produced Texas's 1st oil boom and encouraged people to try their luck in the new business
What were four results of cheap oil?
1. made possible a new industrial revolution in 20th century America fueled by hydrocarbons
2. provided a new fuel for transportation and manufacturing
3. railroads and steamships were able to convert from coil to oil
4. manufacturing plants and farms were able to operate more efficiently which encouraged people to migrate to cities and out of farms
What forms a triangle which is the heart of the Texas economy?
I-35 from San Antonio to DFW, I-45 from DFW to Houston, and I-10 from Houston to San Antonio
What 5 oil companies sparked the industrialization of the Gulf Coast?
Gulf Oil, Sun Oil, Magnolia Petroleum, the Texas Company, and Humble Oil
What is the "boom" aspect and the "bust" aspect of the petroleum industry?
Boom: prosperous economic time
Bust: Oilfields tap out and become ghost towns
How did the Railroad Commission change in 1917 and in the 1930's?
In 1917, the agency's powers were extended after the Texas Railroad Commission Amendment was passed.
In the 1930's, commission won the authority to determine how much oil the wells would produce
How much money from oil and gas severance taxes contribute to the state treasure in the 2014- 2015 biennium?
Oil and gas revenue contributes to the Permanent University Fund. What university systems benefit from this, and how much is it worth?
UTA, A&M, West TX Permian Basin
What 2 things do the Meadows Foundation, the Sid W. Richardson Foundation, and the Bass Performance Hall have in common?
1. they all paved a way for private philanthropy based on oil
2. shaped Texas's culture
What 2 technological innovations have contributed to the recent oil and gas boom, and one of those new technologies is very dependent upon what?
horizontal drillings and fracking (vast water supplies)
What triggered a recession in 1982? What parts of the Texas economy suffered?
World oil prices began to collapse
Real Estate and construction began to fail which caused banks to suffer greatly
What was the basis of an economic boom in Texas in the 1990's?
New technology which caused the state's gross domestic product from manufacturing
In what 2 metropolitan areas of Texas is the high tech industry concentrated?
Houston, Austin-San Marcos
The high tech industry is associated with which parts of the Houston economy?
medical centers and expanding research facilities
Texas has the most mileage among the states in what two things?
highways, and rail miles
How many deep-water ports are in Texas? Which is the largest?
Port of Houston
What is NAFTA, and when did it go into effect?
North American Free Trade Agreement- trade treaty among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to lower and eliminate tariffs among the 3 countries
Went into effect on December 17, 1992
What 3 statistics illustrate the affect NAFTA has on Laredo?
1.port of entry for 40% of U.S.-Mexico truck transport trade
2. labor force increase 48% from 1994- 2014
3. international toll bridges made up 23% of the general fund revenue in 2012
The "Great Recession" began in late 2007 and ended late in 2011. What explanation of Texas politicians like to make, especially comparing Texas to California?
housing market declined less severely in Texas, low taxes, low services
In reality, Texas fared better economically during the recession due to what 3 factors?
1. increasingly diversified economy lubricated by international trade
2. resurgent oil and gas industry
3. banking industry
In 1850 what was the population of Texas, and what fraction of that were slaves?
210,000; 1/4 slaves
In 2012, what was the population of Texas?
% whites, African Americans, Latinos, Asians?
White: 44.5%, African American: 12.3%, Latinos: 38.2%, Asians: 4.2%
What are the 3 factors which account for Texas' population growth?
1. natural increase as a result of the difference between births and deaths
2. international immigration
3. domestic immigration from other states
In 2013, what percents of population growth are attributed to which cause?
natural increase: 54%
international immigration: 16.8%
domestic immigration: 29.7%
Especially after Texas' independence, what was the "cultural baggage" of many Texas settlers?
What 3 patterns defined Texas politics after Reconstruction for approximately 100 years?
one-party Democratic state, provincialism, and business dominance
What are the characteristics of the new white immigration?
whites were now urbanite or suburbanite who weren't born in Texas and voted Republican
Texas Latinos constitute what percent of all U.S. Latinos?
What 2 TX cities have a Latino majority?
San Antonio and El Paso
What is the significance of Henry B. Gonzales?
became the 1st Mexican American to be elected to the Texas Senate in modern times
What fraction of the TX population was slave at the time of the Civil War?
What were 2 devices used to undermine black participation in government in the early 1900's?
poll tax and the white-primary law
What 2 acts of Congress opened up opportunities for black participation in Texas politics?
Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
What is the significance of Barbara Jordan?
became the 1st African American woman to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Texas
The largest number of African Americans live in what section of TX and in what two large cities?
east TX; Houston and Dallas
TX has a relatively young population compared to other states."Younger populations tend to be
poorer, as income and poverty statistics bear out"
What was the per capita income of Texans in 2011?
What 2 factors explain the high per capita income of Sutton County?
rich in oil and gas
Starr County has the lowest per capita income among the 254 counties in TX. Where is it located?
southeast corner state along the Rio Grande
Only 3 U.S. cities are larger in population than Houston. What are they?
New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago
What are the "4 legs" of the San Antonio economy?
national military bases, educational institutes, tourism, and a large medical research complex
In the 1950's and 1960's, how did Dallas become the 3rd-largest technology center in the nation?
Ling-Temco-Vought and TI
Culturally, how are Dallas and FW different?
Dallas- white collared business
How did WWI and WWII affect FW?
WWI- troops trained at Camp Bowie
WWII- air force base (aviation industry)
The opening of what further enhanced Houston's place in the state economy?
Houston Ship Channel
In what category does Houston rank number one?
manufacture of petroleum equipment
What made Dallas unique by 1873?
Houston and Texas Central Railroad, Texas and Pacific Railroad made Dallas the 1st rail crossroads in TX
What happening in MX had a major impact on Mexican immigration to San Antonio?
By mid-20th century, how was the San Antonio population a unique blend?
Anglo American: 29%
African American: 6%