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Insight therapy

Talk therapy; clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their therapists. Can be done with individual or group.

Behavior therapy

Based on the principles of learning, therapists make direct efforts to alter problematic responses like phobias and drug use.

Biomedical therapies

Involve interventions into a person's biological functioning. Most widely used are drug therapy and electroconvulsive shock therapy.


Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.


Physicians who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of disorders.

Antipsychotic Drugs

Block or reduce sensitivity of the brain receptors that respond to dopamine. Helps patient become manageable, but not a cure.

Antidepressant Drugs

Keep seratonin in synaptic gap before reuptake to create a sense of well-being.


Increase the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), effects the muscles for a sense of relaxation.

Lithium Carbonate

Used to treat bipolar disorder, must be given in the right dosage, and it is hard to find the right dosage.

Placebo Effect

Success of a treament that is due to the patient's expectation of hopes rather than to the drug itself.


Any surgical procedure that destorys selected areas of the brain, ex. prefrontal lobotomy. Might result in minor memory loss and docile behavior.

Egaz Monez

Psychosurgery to help people who were insane, killed by one of his patients.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

A procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, causes a brief brain seizure.


Emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference.

Free Association

Clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feeelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible.

Dream analysis

Therapists interpret the symbolic meanings of patients' dreams.


Therapists attempt to explain the inner significance of the client's thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors.


Largely unconscious defensive manuveurs intended to hinder the progress of their therapy.


Occurs when clients unconsciously relate to their therapists in ways that mimick relationships in their lives.

Client-centered Therapy

An insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for patients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their own therapy.

Group Therapy

Simulataneous psychological treatment of several clients in a group.

Spontaneous Remission

Recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment.

Behavior Therapy

Involve the applications of learning principles to direct efforts to change client's maladaptive behaviors. Uses techniques of classical and operant conditioning.

Systematic Desensitization

Step by step process of desensitizing a client to a feared object or experience. Based on counter-conditioning.

Aversion Therapy

Behavior therapy in which an aversive therapy is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response.

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments

Use varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive terms of thinking.

Cognitive Therapy

Uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders.

Biomedical Therapies

Physiological interventionsintended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders.


The treatment of mental disorders with medication.

Antianxiety Drugs

Relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness. Ex. Vallium and Xanax

Antipsychotic Drugs

Gradually reduce psychotic symptoms including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and dellusions. Ex. Thorazine

Antidepressant Drugs

Gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depression. Ex. Prozac and Zoloft

Humanist Therapy

Based on the assumption that people seek self-actualization and self-fulfillment, emphasized people's free will to change.

Mood Stabilizers

Used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar disorder. Ex. lithium

Sigmund Freud

Developed psychoanalysis

Carl Rogers

Developed client-centered therapy

Aaron Beck

Developed cognitive-behavior therapy, Beck Depression Inventory


Practice of therapy involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system.

Mental hospital

A medical institution specializing in providing in-patient care for psychological disorders.

Existential Therapy

Helps clients explore the meaning of existence and face life's issues with courage.

Family and Couples Therapy

Helping with problems that develop within a family, can look for patterns of behavior across generations.

Psychodynamic Therapy

Insight into unconscious motives and feelings, probing the unconscious through dream analysis, free association, transference.

Exposure (Flooding)

Technique where a person suffering from an anxiety disorder such as a phobia or panic attack is taken directly into the feared situation until anxiety is relieved.

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