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Science8H Final Vocab

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science
the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested
scientific methods
the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems
observation
the process of obtaining information by using the senses
hypothesis
a testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation
data
any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation
first aid
emergency medical care for someone who has been hurt or is sick
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
volume
a measure of the size of an object or region in three-dimensional space
density
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
temperature
a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
model
a representation of an object or system
theory
an explanation for many hypotheses and observations
law
a summary of many experimental results and observations
independent variable
in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated (changed)
dependent variable
in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to the independent variable
axis
a reference line that forms one side of a graph
mean
the number obtained by adding up the data for a given characteristic and dividing this sum by the number of individuals
median
the value of the middle item when data are arraned in order by size
mode
the most frequently occuring value in a data set
slope
a measure of the slant of a line; the ratio of rise over run
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
volume
a measure of the size of a body or region in a three-dimensional space
meniscus
the curve at a liquid's surface by which one measures the volume of the liquid
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
weight
a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the matter's identity
density
the amount of matter in a given space or volume; the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
physical change
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
chemical property
a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions
chemical change
a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
states of matter
the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
solid
the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
liquid
the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
gas
a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
plasma
in physical science, a state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized; it consists of free-moving ions and electrons, it takes on an electric charge, and its properties differ from the properties of a solid, liquid, or gas; the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and whose particles have broken apart
change of state
the change of a substance from one physical state to another
melting
the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat
evaporation
the change of state from a liquid to a gas
boiling
the conversion of a liquid to a vapor when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
condensation
the change of state from a gas to a liquid
sublimation
the process in which a solid changes directy into a gas
element
a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
pure substance
a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
metal
an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
nonmetal
an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
metalloid
an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals
compound
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
mixture
a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solution
a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformally dispersed
solute
in a solution, the substance that dissolves in a solvent
solvent
in a solution, the substance in which a solute dissolves
concentration
the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
solubility
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
electron
a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
nucleus
in physical science, an atoms central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
electron cloud
a region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found
proton
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element
atomic mass unit
a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element
isotope
an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units
motion
an object's change in position relative to a reference point
average speed
the total distance traveled divided by (over)the total time taken
velocity
the speed of an object in a particular direction
acceleration
the rate at which velocity changes overtime; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change
force
a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object; force has size and direction
newton
SI unit for force (N)
net force
the combination of all the forces acting on an object
friction
the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
gravity
a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses
weight
a measure of the gravitational force on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
terminal velocity
the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity
free fall
the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body
projectile motion
the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object
fluid
a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid
pressure
the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
pascal
the SI unit of pressure (Pa)
atmospheric pressure
the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere
buoyant force
the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid
Archimedes' principle
the principle that states that the buoyant force of an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces