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Speech Science Week 3
Terms in this set (148)
______________ ___________ is a measure of the cycles per second of vocal fold vibration.
Fundamental frequency is a PHYSICAL MEASURE/PERCEPTION.
_______ is the listener's subjective perception of how high or low a speaker's voice is.
Pitch is a PHYSICAL MEASURE/PERCEPTION.
True or False: Fundamental frequency and pitch mean the same thing.
Loudness is also called ___________.
In a _______ voice, frequency and pitch may NOT match.
___________ ___________is air pressure under the vocal folds, that it built up when the vocal folds are closed.
1) Increasing subglottal pressure DECREASES/INCREASES voice intensity
2) Increasing subglottal pressure causes the vocal folds to come together with LESS/MORE force.
3) Increasing subglottal pressure causes the vocal folds to become LESS/MORE tense.
4) Increasing subglottal pressure causes the Bernoulli effect to be WEAKER/STRONGER.
So, in summary, talking loud:
1) increases _____________
2) increases __________
3) increases__________ vocal folds hit together
4) Increases __________ (think scream)
1) pressure 2) tension 3) force 4) frequency
Increasing subglottal pressure leads to an INCREASE/DECREASE in intensity.
Small increases in ________________, cause large increases in ____________.
The internal intercostal _______________ muscle raise pressure for stressed syllables.
The interosseous muscles can raise subglottal pressure for stressed syllables because they can pull down on the ________ quickly.
Higher subglottal pressure=
1) higher ___________
2) increased __________
1) frequency 2) duration
In the vibratory cycle, loud/intense voices have a SHORT/LONG opening phase and a SHORT/LONG closed phase.
In the vibratory cycle, soft/less intense voices have a SHORT/LONG opening phase and a SHORT/LONG closed phase.
In the vibratory cycle, loud/intense voices have a LESSER/GREATER amplitude
In the vibratory cycle, soft/ less intense voices have a LESSER/GREATER amplitude
For low intensity or breathy voices, the vocal folds may never _______.
The ______________ is the physical mechanism of the articulatory system.
The resonator of the articulatory system is the ________ ________.
_____________ is the result of filtering the sound source as it passes through the supraglottal cavities of the vocal tract.
Supraglottal means BELOW/ABOVE glottis.
Some frequencies are __________ as they pass through the resonator, which others will be __________.
____________ means softer or no force added.
In speech, the supraglottal cavities are shaped by the ___________.
The resonant frequencies of the vocal tract are determined in large part by the cavity _______ and ______.
Vocal-fold vibrations are APERIODIC/PERIODIC
Vocal-fold vibration usually provides a periodic sound source for ______ and _______ consonants.
Noise at the glottis (whisper) can provide a APERIODIC/PERIODIC sound source for vowels of speech.
Both periodic and aperiodic sound sources _____ the resonances of the vocal tract cavities.
What are the 3 vocal tract cavities?
1) nasal 2) oral 3) pharyngeal
The _________ is formed by a tube of constrictor muscles.
What are the 3 CONTRACTING muscles of the pharynx that NARROW the pharynx?
1) Superior constrictors
2) Middle constrictors
3) Inferior constrictors
What 2 muscles RAISE and WIDEN the pharynx?
Draw a picture of the palatopharyngeous muscle
The ________________ ligament is is a tendinous band of the buccopharyngeal fascia, attached by one extremity to the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate, and by the other to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible.
The _______ _______ is formed by the space between the teeth, upper and lower jaws (maxilla, mandible), and tongue.
The oral cavity is formed by the space between the ______, upper and lower _____ (maxilla, mandible) and _________.
teeth, jaw, tongue
The oral cavity contains landmarks for ______________.
Teeth produce ________ sounds.
Alveolar ridge produces ________ sounds.
The velum produces ________ sounds.
The velum is also know as the _______ _______.
θ, ð are produced by the________.
/t, d, n, s/ are produced by the ________ ________.
/k. g, ŋ/ are produced by the ______.
The ______ space is the space between the lips and teeth.
Normally the velum hangs DOWN/UP at the back of the oral vacity
The velum ends in the ______.
When the velum hangs DOWN, the oral and nasal cavities are SEPARATED/JOINED.
When the velum is DOWN, and the oral and nasal cavities are COUPLED, acoustic energy is resonated in both the ______ and ______.
mouth and nose
When the velum is DOWN, and the oral and nasal cavities are COUPLED, acoustic energy is resonated in both the mouth and nose IS/IS NOT good for most English sounds.
What 2 muscles are responsible for RAISING the velum?
1) levator palatini 2) Superior constrictor
When the velum is RAISED the VP port is CLOSED/OPEN
What does VP port stand for?
The ________ _______ muscles separates the nasal and pharyngeal cavities.
The levator palatini is also used for ________ sounds.
The main job of the superior constrictor muscle is to ________ the VP port.
____________ of the levator palatini allows the velum to DROP.
When the velum is DROPPED, the VP port is CLOSED/OPEN
When the VP post is OPEN air flows freely into the _______ cavity (as in breathing).
The velum must be LOWERED (DROPPED) for ______ speech sounds.
In _______ speech the drop and re-raising in velum needs to happen QUICKLY.
The velum DROP and RAISING needs to happen __________- more than gravity can be counted upon for.
What 2 muscles assist in OPENING the VP port during running speech
Remember, the palatopharyngeous also __________ the pharynx.
The palatopharyngeous is LATERAL/MEDIAL to the palatoglossus.
The palatoglossus and palatopharyngeous muscles LOWER/RAISE the velum quickly.
The specific function, at a particular time, for the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeous muscle depends on which attachment is ________.
LOWERING the velum, and OPENING the VP port helps to keep vowels from sounding _______.
What are the 4 extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
1) styloglossus 2) hyoglossus 3) genioglossus 4) palatoglossus
The extrinsic tongue muscle control tongue POSITION-MOVEMENT/SHAPE
The extrinsic tongue muscles are best for CONSONANTS/VOWELS.
The styloglossus extrinsic tongue muscle moves the tongue _____ and _____.
up and back
The hyoglossus extrinsic tongue muscle moves the tongue _____ and _____.
down and back
The genioglossus extrinsic tongue muscle moves the tongue _____ and _____ out of the mouth.
up and forward
The ________ _________ INTRINSIC tongue muscles helps the genioglossus, by pulling down the tongue so that it is not hanging out of the mouth.
The palatoglossus extrinsic tongue muscle moves the tongue _____.
The palatoglossus extrinsic tongue muscle ONLY moves the tongue up in the ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR.
Remember, the palatoglossus muscle also helps to LOWER/RAISE the velum quickly to CLOSE/OPEN the VP port.
The__________ extrinsic tongue muscle produces FRONT vowels.
The _________ extrinsic tongue muscle produces BACK vowels.
/u / is produced by the _________ extrinsic tongue muscle.
/a/ is produced by the _________ extrinsic tongue muscle.
/i/ is produced by the _________ extrinsic tongue muscle.
The __________ and _________ extrinsic tongue muscles work together to bring the tongue UP
You would use the ________ extrinsic tongue muscle when the doctor tells you to say, "Ahhhhh".
What are the 4 intrinsic tongue muscles?
1) superior longitudinal 2) inferior longitudinal 3) verticle muscle 4) transverse muscle
The intrinsic tongue muscle control tongue POSITION-MOVEMENT/SHAPE
The superior longitudinal intrinsic tongue muscle ______ the tongue tip.
The inferior longitudinal intrinsic tongue muscle ______ the tongue tip
Remember, the inferior intrinsic tongue muscle helps the __________ EXTRIINSIC tongue muscle by pulling down the tongue so that it is not hanging out of the mouth.
The vertical intrinsic tongue muscle ______ the tongue body.
The transverse intrinsic tongue muscle ______ and ______ the tongue
/t, s/ is produced by the _______________ intrinsic tongue muscle.
/i/ is produced by the _______________ intrinsic tongue muscle.
/sh/ is produced by the _______________ intrinsic tongue muscle.
/t/ is produced by the _______________ intrinsic tongue muscle.
The ________ ______ muscle encircles the lips.
The obicularis oris muscle helps in 1) _______ closures and 2) lip _________
Bilabial closures produced by the OBICULARIS ORIS include:
/p, b, m/
Lip rounding produced by the OBICULARIS ORIS include:
/u/, and /w/
The ________ muscle draws the corners of the lips back and up.
The risorius lip muscle is active in lip _________.
Lip spreading sounds produced by the RISORIUS lip muscle include:
The _____________ muscle draws the corners of the lips back.
The __________ _________ _____ helps to compress the lips for bilabial sounds.
depressor anguli oris
__________ is a disturbance in a medium (like air)
In sound, the _______ travels, not the particle.
A sound wave can be _______ or ______.
A ________ sound wave has ONE frequency only: a pure tone
A _______ sound wave has MULTIPLE frequencies.
Speech is a SIMPLE/COMPLEX sound wave.
SHM stands for
simple harmonic motion
Pure tones result from ___________ _________ _________.
simple harmonic moition
Patterns of SMH 1) the pattern of vibration always ________ itself (it is APERIODIC/PERIODIC)
Patterns of SMH 2) each cycle takes DIFFERENT/SAME amount of time.
________ is the time it takes a sound wave to repeat itself
Patterns of SMH 3) ______________ is CONSTANT
___________ is how many repetitions of the sound wave per second.
Patterns of SMH 4) The graphic representation is a TRANSVERSE/SINE wave.
What are 3 examples of things that move in SMH?
1) tuning forks
In a tuning fork, _______ is displaced (moved) from equilibrium.
The tines of a tuning fork vibrate in _________ ________ motion.
_________ is loudness.
______________ of the tone changes, the HARDER you strike the tuning fork.
____________ and _________ DO NOT change the harder you strike the tuning fork.
Initial impact of tines starts movement AWAY/TOWARDS rest.
____________ means distance from resting position
___________ allows displacement
As the tine of a vibrating tuning fork moves AWAY from its rest position, the force of ________ increases
Elasticity also generates a _________ _______ that STOPS the movement.
The RESISTING force wants to GO AWAY FROM/RETURN TO resting position.
Elasticity is the tendency of a body to _______ deformation and when deformed, to ________ to its resting position.
__________ is the tendency for motion or lack of motion to continue; or the tendency of a body to keep going once it is set into motion, or to stay motionless once movement stops.
Inertia carries the tines PAST/UP TO rest position
The _______ _______ then builds up in the opposite direction and fork returns to rest position.
restoring factor (RF)
Towards rest, inertia INCREASES/DECREASES
Towards rest, elasticity INCREASES/DECREASES
RF is stronger when inertia is WEAK/STRONG
RF is WEAKER/STRONGER when tines are more displaced.
Inertia is stronger when RF is WEAK/STRONG
Inertia is STRONGER/WEAKER at rest position
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Aerodynamics of Speech Production
Muscles of Facial Expression
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