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93 terms

H&S exam 1

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Behaviorism
Watson's science of behavior, which dealt solely with observable behavioral acts that could be described in objective terms.
Cognitive psychology
A system of psychology that focuses on the process of knowing, on how the mind actively organizes experiences.
Functionalism
A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment.
Gestalt psychology
A system of psychology that focuses largely on learning and perception, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.
Historiography
The principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research.
Humanistic psychology
A system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.
Naturalistic theory
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others.
Personalistic theory
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals.
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of psychotherapy.
Structuralism
E. B. Titchener's system of psychology, which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons.
Zeitgeist
The intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times
Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences begin publication
1965
The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its
history
The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on
Experimentation
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who
altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers.
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German
Free Association
The first African American president of the APA was
Kenneth Clark
The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen today, Freud would discover it would be an argument for which of the following theories
Personalistic
In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because
his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory.
In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ________ occurred
Scientific revolution
Association
The notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideas to form complex ideas.
Contiguity
The notion that the more closely linked two ideas are in time or place, the more readily they will be associated.
Creative synthesis
The notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements.
Derived and innate ideas
Derived ideas are produced by the direct application of an external stimulus; innate ideas arise from the mind or consciousness, independent of sensory experiences or external stimuli.
Determinism
The doctrine that acts are determined by past events.
Empiricism
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience.
Materialism
The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter.
Mechanism
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.
Mentalism
The doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person.
Mind-body problem
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities.
Positivism
The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.
Primary and secondary qualities
Primary qualities are characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive them; secondary qualities are characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the object.
Reductionism
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas).
Reflex action theory
The idea that an external object (a stimulus) can bring about an involuntary response.
Reflex arc
The connection between sensory stimuli and motor responses.
Repetition
The notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more readily they will be associated.
Simple and complex ideas
Simple ideas are elemental ideas that arise from sensation and reflection; complex ideas are derived ideas that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analyzed or reduced to their simpler components.
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is
mechanism
Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?
Effects are predictable and measurable.
Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that
experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to
Experience
In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?
Descartes
Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body except
Thought
Descartes is often called the author of the theory of
Reflex Action
Descartes posited that the mind-body interaction occurred in the
Pineal body
Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ________ ideas
innate
Those who argue today that behavior is no more than the action of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled "modern ________."
Materialists
Absolute threshold
The point of sensitivity below which no sensations can be detected and above which sensations can be experienced.
Clinical method
Posthumous examination of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died.
Differential threshold
The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in sensation.
Electrical stimulation
A technique for exploring the cerebral cortex with weak electric current to observe motor responses.
Extirpation
A technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal's brain by removing or destroying it and observing the resulting behavior changes.
Just noticeable difference
The smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuli.
Psychophysics
The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes.
Two-point threshold
The threshold at which two points of stimulation can be distinguished as such.
Until the work of ________, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology
Muller
In his research, Flourens localized specific functions to how many brain areas?
4
________ produced the theory of cranioscopy.
Gall
The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is:
Galvani
Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition?
Helmholtz
Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference?
Weber
While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:
developed the idea of the pleasure principle.
Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:
whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.
In Fechner's Law, as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases:
geometrically
In the original source material from one of his books, Fechner states that, "________ depends on ________".
sensation; stimulation
Act psychology
Brentano's system of psychology, which focused on mental activities (e.g., seeing) rather than on mental contents (e.g., that which is seen).
Apperception
The process by which mental elements are organized.
Imageless thought
Külpe's idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component.
Introspection
Examination of one's own mind to inspect and report on personal thoughts or feelings.
Mediate and immediate experience
Mediate experience provides information about something other than the elements of that experience; immediate experience is unbiased by interpretation.
Nonsense syllables
Syllables presented in a meaningless series to study memory processes.
Phenomenology
Stumpf's introspective method that examined experience as it occurred and did not try to reduce experience to elementary components. Also, an: approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements.
Systematic experimental introspection
Külpe's introspective method that used retrospective reports of subjects' cognitive processes after they had completed an experimental task.
Tridimensional theory of feelings
Wundt's explanation for feeling states based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/ relaxation, and excitement/depression.
Voluntarism
The idea that the mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher-level thought processes
In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in
physiological psychology.
Wundt's productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged:
2.2 pages a day for over 50 years.
Wundt's observers used introspection to report:
judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli.
According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely
Sensation and feeling
Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to:
the process of organizing mental elements into a whole.
Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because:
it was not seen as having practical value.
While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?
Ebbinghaus
Stimulus error
Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed.
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including:
apperception
One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?
Ladd-Franklin
Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?
Washburn
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?
The reduction of conscious processes, The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness, To identify the physiological correlates of the elements
By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.
Existential
Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:
existed long before Titchener used the method.
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:
retrospection
The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:
his experimental method and a strong position to protest.