Watson's science of behavior, which dealt solely with observable behavioral acts that could be described in objective terms.
A system of psychology that focuses on the process of knowing, on how the mind actively organizes experiences.
A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment.
A system of psychology that focuses largely on learning and perception, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.
A system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others.
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals.
E. B. Titchener's system of psychology, which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons.
The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who
altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers.
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German
The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen today, Freud would discover it would be an argument for which of the following theories
In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because
his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory.
In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ________ occurred
The notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideas to form complex ideas.
The notion that the more closely linked two ideas are in time or place, the more readily they will be associated.
The notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements.
Derived and innate ideas
Derived ideas are produced by the direct application of an external stimulus; innate ideas arise from the mind or consciousness, independent of sensory experiences or external stimuli.
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience.
The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter.
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.
The doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person.
The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.
Primary and secondary qualities
Primary qualities are characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive them; secondary qualities are characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the object.
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas).
Reflex action theory
The idea that an external object (a stimulus) can bring about an involuntary response.
The notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more readily they will be associated.
Simple and complex ideas
Simple ideas are elemental ideas that arise from sensation and reflection; complex ideas are derived ideas that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analyzed or reduced to their simpler components.
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is
Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?
Effects are predictable and measurable.
Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that
experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature
In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?
Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ________ ideas
Those who argue today that behavior is no more than the action of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled "modern ________."
The point of sensitivity below which no sensations can be detected and above which sensations can be experienced.
Posthumous examination of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died.
The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in sensation.
A technique for exploring the cerebral cortex with weak electric current to observe motor responses.
A technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal's brain by removing or destroying it and observing the resulting behavior changes.
Just noticeable difference
The smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuli.
The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is:
While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:
developed the idea of the pleasure principle.
Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:
whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.
In Fechner's Law, as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases:
In the original source material from one of his books, Fechner states that, "________ depends on ________".
Brentano's system of psychology, which focused on mental activities (e.g., seeing) rather than on mental contents (e.g., that which is seen).
Külpe's idea that meaning in thought can occur without any sensory or imaginal component.
Mediate and immediate experience
Mediate experience provides information about something other than the elements of that experience; immediate experience is unbiased by interpretation.
Stumpf's introspective method that examined experience as it occurred and did not try to reduce experience to elementary components. Also, an: approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements.
Systematic experimental introspection
Külpe's introspective method that used retrospective reports of subjects' cognitive processes after they had completed an experimental task.
Tridimensional theory of feelings
Wundt's explanation for feeling states based on three dimensions: pleasure/displeasure, tension/ relaxation, and excitement/depression.
The idea that the mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher-level thought processes
Wundt's productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged:
2.2 pages a day for over 50 years.
Wundt's observers used introspection to report:
judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli.
Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because:
it was not seen as having practical value.
While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?
One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?
The reduction of conscious processes, The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness, To identify the physiological correlates of the elements
Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:
existed long before Titchener used the method.
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of: