HESI - Anatomy & Physiology practice test
Terms in this set (162)
What are the four fundamental tissues ?
Epithelial Tissue ?
Cover, line, and protect the body and its internal organs.
Connective tissue ?
Is the framework of the body which provides support and structure for the organs.
Nerve Tissue ?
Composed of neurons and connective tissue cells (Neuroglia).
Muscle Tissues ?
Have the ability to contract or shorten
Function of the nucleus ?
Function of Ribosomes ?
Important for the synthesis of proteins
DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly between two daughter cells.
Cell division where 46 chromosomes are reduced to 23 so they zygote has the correct number of chromosomes.
What is the largest organ in the body ?
How many layers does the skin consist of ?
Two : Dermis & Epidermis
The outermost protective layer of dead keratinized epithelial cells.
The underlying layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structures.
What are the layers of the Epidermis from outer layer to inner layer ?
Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, and stratum germinativum (Inner most layer).
What are the two parts of the Germinativum (Innermost layer of the Epidermis) ?
Stratum basale & Stratum spinosum
Where does mitosis occur ?
Epidermal cells contain the protein pigment called _______ ?
What is the function of melanin ?
Protects against radiation from the sun
What is the dermis composed of ?
fibrous connective tissue,
What are the two types of sweat glands ?
Eccrine & Appocrine
What is eccrine ?
regulates body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin.
What is appocrine ?
secretion that contains bit of cytoplasm from the secreting cells. This cell bacteria attracts bacteria, and the presence of bacteria on the skin results in body odor.
What does the appendages of the skin contain ?
hair and nails
What does the body's framework consist of ?
bone, cartilage, ligaments, and joints
What are some of the functions of the skeletal system ?
support, movement, blood cell formation
what is hemopoiesis ?
blood cell formation
Describe the properties of a long bone ?
has an irregular epiphysis at each end, composed of spongy cancellous bone and a shaft/diaphysis
What are the bones of the cranium ?
single occipital, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and paired parietal, temporal, and ossicles of the ear.
how many bones does the cervical vertebrae have ?
how many bones does the thoracic vertebrae have ?
how many bones does the lumbar vertebrae have ?
what is the tail bone called ?
what does the bones of the thorax contain ?
sternum &12 pairs of ribs
what are metacarpals ?
bones of the hand
what are phalanges ?
bones of the fingers
what are the carpals ?
what are the metatarsals ?
bones of the foot
how do muscles produce movement ?
by contracting in response to nervous stimulation
how do muscle contractions result ?
the sliding together of actin and myosin flaments within the muscle cell or fiber.
________ needs to be present inorder for a muscle cell to contract
Calcium & ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
What causes the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum ?
Nervous stimulation from motor neurons
what are voluntary muscles ?
the skeletal muscles that make up the muscular system
What is the prime mover ?
the muscle that executes a movement
what is the antagonist ?
the muscles that produces the opposite movement that was completed by the prime mover.
what does a flexor muscle do ?
reduce the angle at the joint
what does the extensor muscle do ?
increase the angle
what does the abductor muscle do ?
draw the limb away from the midline
what does the addutor muscle do ?
returns the limb back towards the body
What is the nervous system made up of ?
the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
What is the function of the nervous system ?
enables us to perceive many of the changes that take place in our external and internal environments and to respond to those changes ex: seeing, hearing,touching
what is the function of endocrine glands ?
correlating and integrating body functions such as digestions and reproduction
all actions of the nervous system depend on _______
the transmission of nerve impulses over neurons, or nerve cells.
What are nerve cells known as ?
the functional units of the nervous system
what are the main parts of a neuron ?
cell body, axon, dendrites
What is the function of dendrites ?
transmit the impulse toward the cell body
what is the function of the axon ?
transmit the impulse away from the cell body
the nervous system may be divided structurally into two groups which are ?
CNS (central nervous system) & PNS (Peripheral nervous system)
what does the PNS consist of ?
all of the nerves that transmit information to and from the CNS
What is the function of sensory (afferent) neurons ?
transmit nerve impulses towards the CNS
what is the function of motor (efferent) neurons ?
transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS toward the effector organs such as muscles, glands, and digestive organs.
what are the major parts of the brain ?
cerebrum, cerebellum, & medulla oblongata
What is the function of the cerebrum ?
associated with movement and sensory input
what is the function of the cerebellum ?
responsible for muscular coordination
what is the function of the medulla oblongata ?
controls many vital fucntions such as respiration and heart rate
approximately how long is the spinal cord ?
how many pairs of spinal nerves exist in the spinal cord ?
what are simple spinal reflexes ?
those in which nerve impulses travel through the spinal cord only and do not reach the brain
what do most reflex pathways involve ?
impulses traveling to and from the brain in ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord.
where do sensory impulses enter from ?
the dorsal horns of the spinal cord
where do motor impulses leave from ?
through the ventral horns of the spinal cord
what is the function of the endocrine system ?
assist the nervous system in homeostasis and plays an important role in growth and sexual maturation.
where does the nervous system and endocrine system meet ?
at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
what is the function of the hypothalamus ?
governs the pituitary gland and in turn is controlled by the feedback of hormones in the blood.
what are hormones ?
chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells
what are the two major groups of hormones ?
steroid and nonsteroid
what are steroid hormones ?
enter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus
what are nonsteroid hormones ?
are protein hormones which remain at the cell surface and act through a second messenger, usually a substance called AMP (Adenosine Monophosphate)
the cortisol released from the adrenal cortex does what ?
inflammation, raises blood sugar levels, and inhibits the release of histamine
what is another name for the pituitary gland ?
the master gland
what are the two main parts of the pituitary gland ?
the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) & the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
what are the hormones of the adenohypophysis ?
what is the function of tropic hormones ?
act on other endocrine glands
what are the hormones released from the posterior lobe ?
oxytocin (labor hormone), ADH -antidiuretic hormone
blood consists of _____% of plasma ?
blood consists of ____% of formed elements ?
what are erythrocytes ?
red blood cells
what are leukocytes ?
white blood cells
what are the different types of formed elements ?
RBC, WBC, & Platelets
what are all of the formed elements produced from ?
stem cells in red bone marrow
why are erythrocytes modified ?
for transport of oxygen
What are the 5 types of WBC's ?
neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes,
what is the function of blood ?
transports oxygen and nutrients to body cells and serves to carry away carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes.
which circuit is the blood pumped through to get to the body ?
what side is the tricuspid valve on ?
what side is the bicuspid valve on ?
where are the semilunar valves found ?
at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk and the aorta
blood is supplied to the heart muscle (myocardium) by ________ ?
the coronary arteries
where does the blood drain from ?
the myocardium directly into the right atrium through the coronary sinus.
the heart has an intrinsic beat that is initiated by the ________ and transmitted along a conduction system through the myocardium.
what is an ECG used for ?
to measure the wave of electrical activity
what is the cardiac cycle ?
the period from the end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction
what is systole ?
the contraction phase
what is diastole ?
the relaxation phase
______ carry blood away from heart
_______ carry blood towards the heart
what is the function of the capillaries
smallest of vessels where the exchanges take place between the blood and surrounding tissues. (exchange water, nutrients and wastes)
what do the systemic arteries begin with?
______ sends branches to all parts of body
what is the smallest type of artery ?
where do the superior and inferior vena cava empty into ?
the right atrium of the heart
what causes vasoconstriction and vasodialation ?
the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in arterial walls.
what are the physical properties of the walls of arteries ?
thick and elastic
what are the physical properties of the walls of veins ?
thin and less elastic than arteries
what do the deflections of an ECG represent ?
the electrical activity that precedes the contraction-relaxation events of the myocardium
when does the contraction of the heart begin ?
just after the action potential passes over the muscle cells.
what are the components of the respiratory system ?
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs with their alveoli, diaphragm, and muscles surrounding the ribs
what is the respiration controlled by ?
the respiratory control center in the medulla of the brain
what is the function of the respiratory system ?
supplies oxygen to the body and eliminates carbon dioxide
what is external respiration ?
exchange of gases between the atmosphere and blood (through the alveoli)
what is internal respiration ?
exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells
what does inhalation require ?
the contraction of the diaphragm to enlarge the thoracic cavity and draw air into the lungs
what is exhalation ?
passive process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the thorax decreases in size
what are the terminal components of the respiratory tract ?
alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli
what is the function of amylase ?
starts the digestion of complex carbohydrates
what are the 4 layers of the digestive tract ? (innermost to outermost)
mucous membrane, submucous layer, muscular layer, serous layer
where does digestion and absorption of food occur ?
the small intestine consists of 3 major regions :
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
where are nutrients absorbed through ?
walls of the small intestine
where are amino acids, carbohydrates absorbed ?
in the blood
where are fats absorbed ?
in the lymph by the lacteals
what are villi ?
small finger like projections which increase the surface area of the intestinal wall
what is the function of the large intestine ?
reabsorb water and stores and eliminates undigested food.
the large intestine has 5 portions :
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and the rectum
what is the opening for defecation (expelling of stool)
what does the urinary system include ?
set of 2 kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and urethra
what is the function of the kidneys ?
what is the function of the ureters ?
transport urine into the urinary bladder where urine is stored before urination through the urethra
what are the functional units of the kidney ?
what are nephrons ?
small coiled tubes filter waste material out of the blood brought to the kidney by the renal artery
what is the glomerulus in the Bowmans capsule ?
where the filtration process occurs
what is the central role of kidneys ?
to serve as regulators of our internal environment
the male and female sex organs (the testes and ovaries) have 2 fucntions :
production of gametes (sex cells) and production of hormones
what is reproductive activity in women like ?
what is reproductive activity in men like ?
what process are gametes formed by ?
what produces testosterone ?
the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules
what hormone regulates sperm production ?
what hormone stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone ?
what is estrogen produced by ?
what stage is LH released in a women during pregnancy ?
approxmately day 14 of the cycle
which of these statements is anatomically correct :
a) the knee is distal to the ankle
b)the heart is inferior to the diaphragm
c) the hip is proximal to the knee
d) the wrist is proximal to the elbow
If you wanted to seperate the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity, which plane would you use ?
You have been given a sample of tissues that has pillar-shaped cells arranged tightly together. the tissue you have is ?
the epidermis is classified as?
The orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the middle region of the humerous. what area is he talking about ?
Going from superior to inferior, the sequence of the vertebral column is :
a) sacral,coccyx,thoracic,lumbar, cervical
c)cervical,lumbar, thoracic, sacral, coccyx
which of the following is true of skeletal muscle ?
a) skeletal muscle comprises of 10% of the body's weight
b)skeletal muscle attaches to bones by tendons
c)muscle contraction helps keep the body warm
d)skeletal muscle continuously contract to maintain pressure
If an impulse is traveling from a sense receptor toward the spinalcord, it is traveling along what type of neuron ?
where are the pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors located ?
what does parathyroid hormone regulate ?
bile is secreted into which organ ?
what is the role of progestorone in the female reproductive system ?
stimulates the development of the endometrium