58 terms

APUSH Unit 2 Ch. (6-8)


Terms in this set (...)

Patrick Henry
Stamp Act Congress
Where 27 delegates from 9 colonies, met in New York City, for the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. The members drew up a statement of their rights and grievances, and requested the king and Parliament, to repeal the Stamp Act. The meeting was largely ignored by England, but it was one step towards inter colonial unity.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Male and female organizations made up of a network of lawyers, merchants, tradesmen, and other townspeople who, took the law into their own hands by enforcing the non importation agreements, and organized colonial protests against British regulations
Samuel Adams
The master propagandist, and engineer of rebellion; formed the first local committee of correspondence, in Massachusetts in 1772, the founder of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty, and signed the Declaration of Independence.
John Adams
One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and married to Abigail Adams.
Boston Massacre
When Parliament passed the Townshend Acts 1767, putting tax on glass, paper, and tea. American colonists were rebellious to the new taxes, and as a result of these rebellions, the British landed 2 regiments of troops in the colonies in 1768. On March 5, 1770, a crowd of 60 townspeople attacked 10 redcoats, and the redcoats opened fired on the civilians, killing/wounding 11 of them. The massacre was known as the Boston Massacre.
James Otis
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, created by the American colonies to be able to communicate with each other. They were organized in the decade before the Revolution, when communication between the colonies became essential. In March of 1773, the Virginia House of Burgesses, the lower house of the Colony of Virginia, proposed that each colonial legislature appoint a standing committee for inter-colonial correspondence. Samuel Adams made the first committee of correspondence.
Intolerable Acts 1774
In 1774, Parliament punished the people of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts, which restricted colonists' rights. The laws restricted town meetings, and required that officials who killed colonists in the line of duty, to be sent to Britain for trial (where it was assumed they would be acquitted of their charges). In 1774, the First Continental Congress, met in Philadelphia to respond to colonial grievances over the Intolerable Acts.
Non-Importation Agreements
Non importation agreements, made to not import British goods, were another stride toward unionism. The Sons and Daughters of Liberty took the law into their own hands by enforcing the non importation agreements.
Conditions in the early colonies that can be roots of Revolution
William Pitt
In 1757, William Pitt became a prominent leader in the London government. He took control of British military leadership in North America. He attacked and captured Louisbourg in 1758. To lead the attack in the Battle of Quebec in 1759, Pitt chose James Wolfe. The French and British armies faced each other on the Plains of Abraham, with the British lead by Wolfe and the French lead by Marquis de Montcalm.
The British "Royal Veto"
George III
The Second Continental Congress released the "Olive Branch Petition", professing American loyalty to the king, and begged stop future hostilities. The petition was rejected by the king. With the rejection, the Americans were forced to choose to fight to become independent, and rebellious or to submit to British rule and power. In August 1775, King George III proclaimed that the colonies were in rebellion. He then hired German Hessians to bring order to the colonies.
The Radical Whigs were a group of British political commentators, who criticized the monarchy's corruption and encouraged citizens to be vigilant, against attempts to take away liberty. During the War of Independence, Patriots were called "Whigs."
The Parliament was England's lawmaking body, similar to our Congress. Parliament limited the power of the king. It was allowed to pass laws as well as repeal them. It passed the Sugar Act of 1764, Quartering Act of 1765, Declaratory Act, Townshend Acts 1767, and the Intolerable Acts of 1774.
Salutary Neglect
Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce these trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect, was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists, in the face of the French territorial, and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.
John Jay
An American delegate, one of the three, who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated, with Britain, and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was appointed to draft up the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence was formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. Wanted to separate the church and state.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was formally approved by Congress, on July 4, 1776. The "declaration" was more of an "explanation" of why the colonists sought their independence. Before the Declaration of Independence, the Loyalists were not extensively persecuted. After the declaration, though, they were subjected to more ridicule, hangings, and imprisonment.
George Washington
George Washington Inaugurates War with France: In 1754, George Washington was sent to the Ohio Valley, to secure land that had been purchased by some Virginians. His 150 Virginian militia killed the French leader, causing French reinforcements to come. The Virginians were forced to surrender on July 4, 1754. He was also elected to lead the Continental Army in in the Second Continental Congress.
Pontiac's Rebellion
In 1763, Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led several tribes, aided by a handful of French traders, in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country. His warriors captured Detroit in the spring of that year, and overran all but 3 British outposts west of the Appalachians. The British eventually defeated the Indians.
Proclamation of 1763
London government issued the Proclamation of 1763. It prohibited settlement in the area, beyond the Appalachians. The Appalachian land was acquired after the British beat the Indians. It was made to prevent another bloody eruption between the settlers and Indians. Many colonists disregarded it.
Seven Years' War 1754
The French and Indian War started in 1754. It was the American theater of the Seven Years' War. This war was fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean. The French wasted so many troops in Europe that they were unable to put enough forces into America. Britain incurred a large debt due to the Seven Years War, most of which was created defending the North American colonies. The British needed more money to support this, so they started levying taxes and all these Acts on the American colonists.
Albany Plan of Union 1754
The Albany Congress met in 1754. Only 7 of 13 colony delegates showed up. It attempted to unite all of the colonies, but the plan was hated by individual colonists and the London regime.
Edward Braddock
General Braddock set out in 1755 with 2,000 men to capture Fort Duquesne. His force was slaughtered by the much smaller French and Indian army. (Braddock's Blunder) Due to this loss of troops, the whole frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was left open to attack. George Washington, with only 300 men, tried to defend the area.In 1756, the British launched a full-scale invasion of Canada.
Peace of Paris
The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the battle and threw the French off the continent of North America. Out of this conflict, the British became the dominant power in North America. The Treaty of Paris 1783, British formally recognized the independence of the United States, Florida is given to Spain, the Loyalists were to no longer be prosecuted. Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay negotiated the peace terms with Britain.
Paul Revere
William Dawes
Battle of Lexington Concord
In April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to, Lexington and Concord. Their plan was to seize stocks of colonial gunpowder, and to capture the "rebel" ringleaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, 8 Americans were shot , and killed. This incident was labelled as the "Lexington Massacre." When the British went to Concord, they were met with American resistance, and had over 300 casualties and 70 deaths. Because of this, the British realized that they had a war, rather than a rebellion, on their hands.
The British viewed the American colonists as tenants: the colonists should exclusively support Britain via supply of raw materials, purchase of British exports. The Navigation Law of 1650 stated that all goods flowing to and from the colonies could only be transported in British vessels, to hurt rival Dutch shippers.
Navigation Acts 1650
The Navigation Law of 1650 stated that all goods flowing to and from the colonies could only be transported in British vessels. It aimed to hurt rival Dutch shippers. This angered and caused the Colonists to smuggle.
Sugar Act 1764
The Sugar Act of 1764, the first law ever passed by Parliament, to raise tax revenue in the colonies for England. The Sugar Act, increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from, the West Indies.
Quartering Act 1765
The Quartering Act of 1765 required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. They had assemblies to discuss, to repeal the Quartering Act.
Stamp Act 1765
First directed tax act. Taxation without representation. In 1765, Grenville imposed a stamp tax on the colonies to raise revenue to support the new military force. This stamp tax, known as the Stamp Act, required colonists to use stamped paper to certify payment of taxes on goods like newspapers, legal documents, and diplomas. This led to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765.
Declaratory Act 1766
Parliament passed the Declaratory Act 1766, which reaffirmed England's right to rule absolutely over the American colonies.
Town-shend Acts 1767
In 1767, Parliament passed the Town-shend Acts. They put a light import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. Colonists didn't contribute to the revenue, & nearly had a rebellion.
Writs of Assistance
Tea Act 1773
The British were adding a tax on tea and colonists thought it was another way for the British to get more tax money from the colonists. The Colonists dress up as Indians, and head to the Boston sea ports and dump out all tea imports, this came to be known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Coercive Acts (1774)
Boston Port Act
Another law was the Boston Port Act. It closed the Boston harbor until damages from the Boston Tea Party, were paid and order could be ensured.
Quebec Act 1774
The Quebec Act was also passed in 1774, It gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law. The American colonists opposed this act for a variety of reasons: it angered anti-Catholics; it extended the land area of Quebec.
Natural Rights
When all citizens willingly work towards the common good, which trumps their private interests. The stability of society and the authority of government depended on society's capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage. This school of thought opposed authoritarian institutions.
John Locke
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Thomas Paine: Common Sense
The Americans continued to deny any intention of independence because loyalty to the empire was deeply ingrained; loosing hope. Thomas Paine released a pamphlet called Common Sense in 1776. It argued that the colonies had outgrown any need for English domination and that they should be given independence. He called for the creation of a new kind of political society, specifically a republic, where power flowed from the people themselves.
Patriots were called "Whigs. The Patriots were numerous where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished - mostly in New England.
Loyalists (Tories)
During the War of Independence, the Loyalists were called "Tories". The Loyalists made up just 16% of the American population. Loyalists were most numerous where the Anglican church was. The Loyalists were well entrenched in New York City, Charleston, Quaker Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. They were least numerous in New England. The Loyalist Exodus happened after the Declaration Of Independence, but stopped at the Peace of Paris.
British/American men who were ready to fight in a minute's notice
First Continental Congress 1774
In 1774, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, to respond to colonial grievances over the Intolerable Acts. 12 of the 13 colonies, (excluding Georgia), sent 55 men to the convention. it was a consultative body. It was a convention rather, than a congress.They created papers of the Declaration of Rights, and appeals to other British-American colonies, to the king, and to the British people. They created The Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods: nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption
Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1775. All 13 colonies were represented. The objective of the meeting was to draft a set of appeals to which the king would respond; independence was still not a widely accepted goal. The Congress Drafts George Washington. The Second Continental Congress selected George Washington to lead the Continental army. The released the "Olive Branch Petition", which professed American loyalty to the king and begged to the king to stop future hostilities. The petition was rejected by the king. Richard Henry Lee proposed that the colonies declare their independence.
Valley Forge
In Pennsylvania, American men went without food for 3 days in the winter of 1777-1778
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create. She strongly supported American independence, and she argued for equal rights, political representation, and education for women
Shay's Rebellion