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flashcards from lab reports


A series of lenses that usually magnify 10 times.

Revolving nosepiece

Rotates to change from one objective to another


The lens closest to the object


Opens and closes with a lever controlling the amount of light striking the object


Condenses light waves into a cone,thereby preventing escapes of light rays; raused and lowered to control the amount of light striking object.

Mechanical stage

allows the slide to move


supports the entire microscope


supports upper portion of microscope

coarse adjustment

moves stage or body tube up and down rapidly for purposes of approximate focusing

fine adjustment

moves stage and body up and down very slowly for purposes of definitive focusing

body tube

raised and lowered in focusing in microscopes

transient bacteria

bacteria that could easily b removed from the skin

resident bacteria

bacteria that normally live on the skin

Ignatz Semmelweis

the man who first observed the relationship between handwashing and disease

Puerpal fever

The disease that help reduceby requiring medical student to wash their hands


MSA medium is selective for


maybe found in the resident microbe group.

Transient flora

mold spores may be part of the


typhoid fever may be spread by hands in contact with


A single antibiotic is usually toxic to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

small doses

antibiotic is usually effective in




means"inhibits growth,stop,to arrest"


agents used to kill or inhibit growth of vegetative cells are


agents uses to kill bacteria on well cleaned food handling equipment


the study of microorganism


disease - causing


study of protozoan and helminth caused disease


chemotherapeutic agents produced by microorganisms.


treatment of disease with chemicals


stimulating the body's own ability to combat infection


study the immune system, which provides us protection against pathogen.

Bubonic plague

caused by Yersinia pestis, infected fleas carried the bacterium, bite the rat. Rat dies and fleas bite human. Made the lymph glands swollen


Kiled 25 million people in Middle ages

Potato blight

fungus Phytophthora infestans infected the potato caused the starvation of Irish faminie in 1800s


a bacterial disease, in 1812, caused Napoleon loss to Russia

small oox and measles

European brought the diseases to Central and south American

Why study microbiology?

Microorganisms are part of the human environment and are therefore important to human health and activities.

Environmental Microbiology ( microbiology ecology

the study of how microorganisms affect the earth and its atmosphere

Recyle vital elements (C,N,O,S,P )

convert elements into forms that are useful

sewage treatment

remove suspension and harmful microbes; recyle water


use microbes to clean up pollutants (oil spills,etc).


The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Jews all contributed to early understanding of the spread of disease.


Defines the term 'cell', had his microscope

Anton van Leewenhoek

Build his own microscope, was the first to see microorganisms. He called them animalcules. kept his microscope to himself (no advancement for more than a century)

Louis Pasteur

with his swan-necked flasks, dust-free air, disproof spontaneous generation.- Pasteurization (work for the wine industry; heating wine to 56 degree in the absence of oxygen for 30 minutes) - germ theory of disease, microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases, and specific microorganisms cause specific diseases.

Robert Koch

- worked on anthrax developing technique to study the bacterium in vivo,grew bacteria in pure culture (use of agar),formulated the postulates,identified the bacillus that cause tuberculosis, developed tuberculin,and studied cholera

Koch's Postulates

1. Specific causative agent must be found in every case of the diseases.2.The diseases organism must be isolated in pure culture.3.Inoculation of a sample of the culture into a healthy, susceptible animal must produce the same disease.4The disease organism must be recovered from the inoculated animal.

Ignaz Phillip Semmelweiss

Austrian who set about controlling infections,Made connection between autopsies and puerperal (childbed) fever (Streptococcus pyrogens causing sepsis),Instead ridiculed, harassed; end up in the asylum

Lister (1865)

Use carbolic acid; his methods (the first asceptic techniques) proved effectively by the decrease in surgical wound infections in his surgical wards)

Paul Ehrlich

-chemotherapy,- introduced an arsenic compound and Salvarsan (effective against syphilis)

Alexander Fleming

accidental discovery of penicillin (antibiotics) from Penicillium notatum,lysozyme could kill bacteria

Martinus Beijerinck

Dutch microbiologists; first characterize viruses,2. Show recycling of elements by bacteria

Peyton Rous

Work on connection between viruses and cancer (transmission of chicken sarcoma)


worked on poliovirus, developed vaccine (1954),inactivated poliovirus (IPV) that required injections,currently used version to immunize children


Work on poliovirus; developed an oral polio vaccine (OPV); contains living attenuated strains of virus; virus ingested, also excreted

Robert Gallo

Discover human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS in 1983.

Elie Metchnikoff

pioneer in immunology,discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis,developed several vaccines

Jenner - Immunology

-noticed milkmaids who came down with cowpox did not get smallpox,-introduced vaccination for small pox (Variola) in 1796. attenuated (weakened),-innoculated people with cowpox to protect against smallpox-








bend rod)





Viruses -

size, acellular, nuclei acid is DNA or RNA; obligate intracellular parasites,Virus can only produce in a host cells.Viruses are particles of nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA), usually enclosed in a protein coat and sometimes surrounded by a membrane.Viruses are extremely small, even compared with bacteria.Viruses can infect animals, plants, and microorganism.


small RNA pieces (folded) that infect plants; cause lot of crop damage; no protein coat


proteinaceous infectious particle; responsible for diseases such as BSE (Bovine Spongiform Eucephalopathy) - mad cow disease; kuru, CJD, fatal familial insomnia. One hypothesis on how abnormal prion proteins corrupt normal prion protein and tangled in brain.


unicellular, eukaryotic, absorb or ingest food, reproduce sexually or asexually.Superficially animal - like, Amoebae move by pseudopods. Others use flagella or cilia to move. heterotroph with food vacules,nonphotosynthetic, and usually motile.

Examples of protozoa

are amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates


The study of protozoa (and helminth-caused) disease is called


are macroscopic worms, but some go through microscopic stages in their life cycle; they cause parasitic diseases in plants and animals, including humans.The helminthes important to health studies are flatworms and roundworms.


Algae, fungi, and protozoa are ,their organelle are membrane bound. can be single celled or multi-celled organisms


are acellular.


they lack internal membrane-bound structures,Bacteria and archaea are and single celled.


bacteria (gram negative; rod shaped) obligate intracellular parasites of mammalian cells


blue-greens; are bacteria and not algae; carry out photosynthesis; can fix nitrogen gas into ammonium using specialized cells called heterocysts

Morphologically varied

unicellular forms, filamentous, colonial forms

Bacteria(sing., bacterium)

unicellular, prokaryotic, presence of peptidoglycan in cell wall, antibiotic sensitivity.They can be spherical, rod-shaped, helical, comma-shaped, star-shaped or square. Heterotrophs or autotrophs.Bacteria are extremely small, even for microorganisms.Bacteria vary in shape, motility, and how they get energy. There are species that can withstand freezing, boiling, and extreme acidity or alkalinity.

Archaea (sing., archaeon)

- unicellular,prokaryotic, absence of peptidoglycan in cell wall, no sensitivity to antibiotic, Archaea were discovered as a separate group of microorganisms in the 1970s.At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes.


- photosynthetic eukaryotes (usually unicellular), cell wall of cellulose,Eukaryotic organism carry out plantlike photosynthesis. Make a big mass of phytoplankton., autotroph,Some algae are unicellular and microscopic. Others consist of many cells and are macroscopic.,Algae are not significant medically, but they are critically important to global ecology.

Fungi (sing., fungus)

Include mushroom, yeasts, and molds. Most of them are scaverngers - decompose the dead organisms. Eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotroph with absorptive nutrition: conidia/ hyphae


Fungi grows multibranched tubes called

The Microbiologists

Immunology, virology, chemotherapy, and genetics are especially active research fields of microbiology.Microbiologists work as researchers or teachers in university, clinical, and industrial settings. They do basic research in the biological sciences; help to perform or Microbiologists work as researchers or teachers in university, clinical, and industrial settings. They do basic research in the biological sciences; help to perfoem or


Archaea (ancient) Bacteria (eubacteria) Eukarya


The DNA molecule must contain genetic information essential for the continuous survival of the organism





Acid-Fast Bacteria

Found in bacteria that belong to the genus, Mycobacterium sp.Cell wall is mainly composed of lipid,Lipid component is mycolic acid,and Acid-fast bacteria stain gram-positive


contain only genetic information that could be helpful to organisms, but that they could survive without


Change in the genetic sequence of DNA in a cell which may or may not cause a change in the amino acid sequence coded from that section of DNA.

Protein genetic flow

DNA>polmerase>transcription>mRNA>Ribosome(protein+rRNA)>translation>tRNA+ amino acid>peptide bond>polypeptide>protein


is the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template


sterilizers are used only on.......utensils.


zones of i nhibition are measured and recorded in millimeter


a disinfectant is expected to let endospores


an antiseptic is usually used on ______objects


an agent used as a gargle would commonly be called__________

1bacteriostatic property(antibiotic) 2. used on animated objects (disinfectant)

list two differences between an antibiotic and disinfectant.


a preparation made by mixing a loopful of water and a bit of agar slant culture on a glass slide


the gram stain is an example of-----------stain.


all members of the genus e.coli would be expected to be gram_


endospores usually appear _____ in a completed gram stain.


the most critical step in making the gram stain is the application

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