Condenses light waves into a cone,thereby preventing escapes of light rays; raused and lowered to control the amount of light striking object.
caused by Yersinia pestis, infected fleas carried the bacterium, bite the rat. Rat dies and fleas bite human. Made the lymph glands swollen
fungus Phytophthora infestans infected the potato caused the starvation of Irish faminie in 1800s
Why study microbiology?
Microorganisms are part of the human environment and are therefore important to human health and activities.
Environmental Microbiology ( microbiology ecology
the study of how microorganisms affect the earth and its atmosphere
The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Jews all contributed to early understanding of the spread of disease.
Anton van Leewenhoek
Build his own microscope, was the first to see microorganisms. He called them animalcules. kept his microscope to himself (no advancement for more than a century)
with his swan-necked flasks, dust-free air, disproof spontaneous generation.- Pasteurization (work for the wine industry; heating wine to 56 degree in the absence of oxygen for 30 minutes) - germ theory of disease, microorganisms (germs) cause infectious diseases, and specific microorganisms cause specific diseases.
- worked on anthrax developing technique to study the bacterium in vivo,grew bacteria in pure culture (use of agar),formulated the postulates,identified the bacillus that cause tuberculosis, developed tuberculin,and studied cholera
1. Specific causative agent must be found in every case of the diseases.2.The diseases organism must be isolated in pure culture.3.Inoculation of a sample of the culture into a healthy, susceptible animal must produce the same disease.4The disease organism must be recovered from the inoculated animal.
Ignaz Phillip Semmelweiss
Austrian who set about controlling infections,Made connection between autopsies and puerperal (childbed) fever (Streptococcus pyrogens causing sepsis),Instead ridiculed, harassed; end up in the asylum
Use carbolic acid; his methods (the first asceptic techniques) proved effectively by the decrease in surgical wound infections in his surgical wards)
-chemotherapy,- introduced an arsenic compound and Salvarsan (effective against syphilis)
accidental discovery of penicillin (antibiotics) from Penicillium notatum,lysozyme could kill bacteria
Dutch microbiologists; first characterize viruses,2. Show recycling of elements by bacteria
worked on poliovirus, developed vaccine (1954),inactivated poliovirus (IPV) that required injections,currently used version to immunize children
Work on poliovirus; developed an oral polio vaccine (OPV); contains living attenuated strains of virus; virus ingested, also excreted
pioneer in immunology,discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis,developed several vaccines
Jenner - Immunology
-noticed milkmaids who came down with cowpox did not get smallpox,-introduced vaccination for small pox (Variola) in 1796. attenuated (weakened),-innoculated people with cowpox to protect against smallpox-
size, acellular, nuclei acid is DNA or RNA; obligate intracellular parasites,Virus can only produce in a host cells.Viruses are particles of nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA), usually enclosed in a protein coat and sometimes surrounded by a membrane.Viruses are extremely small, even compared with bacteria.Viruses can infect animals, plants, and microorganism.
proteinaceous infectious particle; responsible for diseases such as BSE (Bovine Spongiform Eucephalopathy) - mad cow disease; kuru, CJD, fatal familial insomnia. One hypothesis on how abnormal prion proteins corrupt normal prion protein and tangled in brain.
unicellular, eukaryotic, absorb or ingest food, reproduce sexually or asexually.Superficially animal - like, Amoebae move by pseudopods. Others use flagella or cilia to move. heterotroph with food vacules,nonphotosynthetic, and usually motile.
are macroscopic worms, but some go through microscopic stages in their life cycle; they cause parasitic diseases in plants and animals, including humans.The helminthes important to health studies are flatworms and roundworms.
Algae, fungi, and protozoa are ,their organelle are membrane bound. can be single celled or multi-celled organisms
they lack internal membrane-bound structures,Bacteria and archaea are and single celled.
blue-greens; are bacteria and not algae; carry out photosynthesis; can fix nitrogen gas into ammonium using specialized cells called heterocysts
unicellular, prokaryotic, presence of peptidoglycan in cell wall, antibiotic sensitivity.They can be spherical, rod-shaped, helical, comma-shaped, star-shaped or square. Heterotrophs or autotrophs.Bacteria are extremely small, even for microorganisms.Bacteria vary in shape, motility, and how they get energy. There are species that can withstand freezing, boiling, and extreme acidity or alkalinity.
Archaea (sing., archaeon)
- unicellular,prokaryotic, absence of peptidoglycan in cell wall, no sensitivity to antibiotic, Archaea were discovered as a separate group of microorganisms in the 1970s.At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes. At first, they were called archaebacteria.Being prokaryotes and small, they resemble bacteria superficially, but they are as distantly related to bacteria as they are to eukaryotes.
- photosynthetic eukaryotes (usually unicellular), cell wall of cellulose,Eukaryotic organism carry out plantlike photosynthesis. Make a big mass of phytoplankton., autotroph,Some algae are unicellular and microscopic. Others consist of many cells and are macroscopic.,Algae are not significant medically, but they are critically important to global ecology.
Fungi (sing., fungus)
Include mushroom, yeasts, and molds. Most of them are scaverngers - decompose the dead organisms. Eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotroph with absorptive nutrition: conidia/ hyphae
Immunology, virology, chemotherapy, and genetics are especially active research fields of microbiology.Microbiologists work as researchers or teachers in university, clinical, and industrial settings. They do basic research in the biological sciences; help to perform or Microbiologists work as researchers or teachers in university, clinical, and industrial settings. They do basic research in the biological sciences; help to perfoem or
The DNA molecule must contain genetic information essential for the continuous survival of the organism
Found in bacteria that belong to the genus, Mycobacterium sp.Cell wall is mainly composed of lipid,Lipid component is mycolic acid,and Acid-fast bacteria stain gram-positive
contain only genetic information that could be helpful to organisms, but that they could survive without
Change in the genetic sequence of DNA in a cell which may or may not cause a change in the amino acid sequence coded from that section of DNA.
Protein genetic flow
DNA>polmerase>transcription>mRNA>Ribosome(protein+rRNA)>translation>tRNA+ amino acid>peptide bond>polypeptide>protein
1bacteriostatic property(antibiotic) 2. used on animated objects (disinfectant)
list two differences between an antibiotic and disinfectant.
a preparation made by mixing a loopful of water and a bit of agar slant culture on a glass slide