52 terms

Earth and Space Science OGT

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Altitude
Height above sea level.
Anemometer
An instrument for measuring and indicating the force or speed of the wind.
Astronomy
The scientific study of celestial objects and phenomena outside the Earth's atmosphere.
Atmosphere
Gaseous layers surrounding the Earth, made up of nitrogen and oxygen. These gases absorb solar radiation, moderate temperatures, and distribute water.
Barometer
An instrument for determining the pressure of the atmosphere.
Big Bang Theory
Theory of the formation of the universe. 13.7 Billion Years Ago Explosion
Climate
The average course or condition of the weather at a place usually over a period of years as exhibited by temperature, wind velocity and precipitation.
Convection
The circulatory motion that occurs in a fluid at a non-uniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity.
Convergent Boundary
Two plates come together to form mountain ranges, volcanoes, and can cause earthquakes.
Crustal Deformation
A change in the crust of a planet, moon or asteroid.
Cyanobacteria
Microscopic, single-celled photosynthetic organism.
Divergent Boundary
Two plates move apart from each other, can cause sea-floor spreading, volcanoes, and earthquakes.
Earthquake
A tremor of the earth's surface.
Eclipse
The total or partial obscuring of one celestial body by another.
Epicenter
The part of the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Erosion
Process in which the surface of the Earth is worm away, it is caused by flowing water and wind.
Faulting
To fracture so as to produce a geologic fault.
Folding
Causing rock strata to undergo bending or curvature.
Fossils
Remnant, impression, or trace of an organism preserved in Earth's crust.
Fossil Fuel
*Oil
*Coal
*Natural Gas
Galaxy
Any of the very large groups of stars and associated matter that are found throughout the universe.
Glaciation
To subject to glacial action in which a large body of ice moves slowly down a slope or valley, or spreads outward on a land surface.
Geyser
A "water volcano", an erupting spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
Hydrosphere
All the water on Earth's surface, 70% of Earth's surface is covered by oceans.
Igneous Rock
Rock formed from cooled magma or lava. Granite
Latitude
Distance north or south of the equator.
Law of Superposition
Law that states the oldest layers of rock are at the bottom, method for dating rocks.
Light Year
(ly) unit of distance equal to the distane light travels in one year
Lithosphere
The solid part of a celestial body (such as Earth), specifically, the outer part of the solid Earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface.
Magma
Molten rock material within the Earth from which igneous rock results by cooling.
Magnetic Reversal
Periods of time in which there was a reversal in direction of the Earth's magnetic field.
Mantle
The part of the interior of a terrestrial planet, especially the Earth, that lies beneath the lithosphere and above the central core.
Metamorphic Rock
Rocks formed from other rocks as a result of heat, pressure, or chemical processes. Slate
Meteoroid
One of a large number of celestial bodies of various size that appear as meteors when they enter Earth's atmosphere.
Meteorology
The study of the atmosphere and focusing on weather processes and weather forecasting.
Mineral
A solid homogeneous crystalline chemical element or compound that results from the inorganic processes of nature.
Nebula
Large cloud of dust and gas where stars begin and end their lives.
Ocean Trench
A long, narrow, deep depression in the ocean bed.
Radiometric Dating
Method used to date rocks or fossils by measuring the decay rate or half-life of radioactive substances, an absolute type of dating.
Seasons
Seasons occur due to the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution.
Sedimentary Rock
Rocks formed from compressed or cemented deposits of sediment. Sandstone
Solar System
The sun and all the objects that orbit it.
Subduction Boundary
Thinner crust is pushed under denser crust to form trenches, volcanoes, and can cause earthquakes.
Theory of Continental Drift
At one time all continents were part of one giant land mass and over time "drifted" apart.
Theory of Plate Tectonics
The lithosphere (crust) is divided into plates and moves along the asthenosphere.
Tides
The alternate rising and falling of the surface of the ocean and water bodies (such as gulfs and bays) connected with the ocean that occurs usually twice a day, and is caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon occurring unequally on different parts of the Earth.
Transform Boundary
Plates grind past each other in a horizontal direction, can cause faults and earthquakes.
Uplift
To cause (a portion of Earth's surface) to rise above adjacent areas.
Vacuum
Empty of all matter, including gas.
Volcano
An opening in earth's crust where magma has reached the surface.
Weather
The state of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness, calm or storm, clearness or cloudiness.
Weathering
To subject to the action of the elements.

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