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Obesity-Related Problems Genitourinary
cancer of breast, uterus, prostate, and colon; stress incontinence
Upper body obesity or central obesity have more abdominal fat and higher free fatty acids circulating; greater risk of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, diabetes
Diagosis with body mass index- 25-29 overweight; greater than 30 obesity; thyroid profile, serum glucose and cholesterol; lipid profile, ECG
Successful treatment is rarely achieved
treatment focuses on reducing the health risks by changing eating habits and exercise; to lose 1 pound must reduce diet by 500 kcal for 7 days or increase activity to burn the equivalent
restrictive procedures include banding which is safer and reversible (band placed around portion of the stomach; malabsorptive/restrictive surgeries include gastric bypass where food bypasses the stomach and goes into pouch created - absorption is limited and procedure is not reversible
Establish realistic weight goals
Identify factors that cause increased food intake
both protein and calories are deficient (marasmus); kwashiorkor is when there are adequate calories but not enough protein
Malnutrition Possible causes
Inadequate nutrient intake
Impaired absorption and use of nutrients
Loss of nutrients due to diarrhea, hemorrhage, or renal failure
Increased metabolic needs
fluids and electrolytes repaired first; initial feedings are limited amounts of liquid to prevent diarrhea; gradual refeeding to prevent electrolyte imabalances
Ensure, Sustacal; 2 ounces with each medication given may be sufficient to increase calorie and protein intake
tube feeding in those unable to consume food; tube placement by checking the pH of aspirate; ph less than 4 indicates proper placement; greater than 6 in the jejunum; 1500 ml per day provides recommended daily intake of all vitamins and minerals
TPN hyperalimentatin is IV administration of carbs, protein, electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and fat emulsions; administered through central line such as subclavian vein
mixed sterile by pharmacy; fluid overload risk in older adults; high glucose formulas can cause hyperglycemia- check glucose every 6 hours; long term use can lead to gallstone formation and liver disease; sterile technique for site and catheter care
Patient with Malnutrition
At great risk for other problems
Should be closely monitored
Have rest periods before and after meals
Hospitalized patient requires an interdisciplinary approach
usually begins during adolescence; distorted body image and irrational fear of gaining weight; restricted calorie intake
late adolescence or early adulthood; binge eating followed by purging; usually high calorie, high fat, and sweet foods; weight is often normal
do not purge; binge eat only; eat even when not hungry and usually occurs when person is alone
Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa
distorted body image and irrational fear of gaining weight. extreme weight loss
Eating Disorders Bulimia nervosa
following failed attempts to lose weight through dieting. weight stays the same
Difficult to effectively treat
Community-based care is appropriate for most clients
Hospitalization for some clients may be necessary
A comprehensive treatment plan for eating disorders includes medical care and monitoring, psychosocial interventions, and nutrition counseling
Client with Eating Disorder
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder
Require hospitalization if weight is less than 75% normal; antidepressants my benefit with bulemia such as prozac to prevent relapse
Observe client during and after meals to prevent disposal of meals; frequent small feedings
Multivitamin or supplements to replace losses
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