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Many people accept the failure of poor listening. "I can look at a person and never hear a word he says," they say with little or no embarrassment. State whether part of the reason could be that we never practice. Stephen Covey, author of The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, notes that "we spend years learning how to read, write, and speak, but we hardly get any training in listening." State how we could train people to listen well.
(1) Can listening to Mozart make children more adept at spatial reasoning? Better at math? More intelligent? There are many people who think so. (2) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was a child prodigy who was hailed throughout Europe for his incredible musical abilities. (3) Many feel that the pieces he wrote are the acme of classical music. (4) Most composers go through a painstaking process of writing and revising when they compose music. Mozart, however, was capable of creating complete, flowing, beautiful works, effortlessly. (5) In fact, this virtuoso composed his music without revision. But the question remains: Can people absorb Mozart's genius through his music? In 1993, scientists Gordon Shaw and Frances Rauscher performed a study to determine if listening to Mozart could improve people's spatial-reasoning abilities. They organized several college students into three groups, placing each group in a separate room. The first group listened to a Mozart piano sonata, the second group listened to a relaxation tape, and the third group was exposed to no auditory stimuli. After ten minutes, the students were given a test that involved ordering objects in space and time. The group that had listened to Mozart had improved test scores, while the others did not. (6) This increase in aptitude, however, lasted for only ten to fifteen minutes. Still, the researchers concluded that Mozart's music stimulated areas of the brain that are involved in spatial reasoning. They inferred that this music could help those parts of the human brain to develop. Many people have accepted this so-called "Mozart Effect" as fact. The governors of Tennessee and Georgia even started programs that give a Mozart CD to every newborn's parents. (7) However, some people have questioned the astuteness of this move. Not everyone believes in the brain-strengthening power of Mozart's music. In fact, a group of scientists, led by Kenneth Steele at Appalachian State University, couldn't replicate the results of the original experiment. They concluded that there wasn't enough evidence to back up the "Mozart Effect." John Bruer, another critic, has argued that listening to stories is probably more beneficial to a person's brain development. Still, there are countless Mozart books, tapes, videos, and CDs that target parents who want to help their children. (8) Resourceful entrepreneurs know that many parents will do whatever they can to improve their child's abilities. (9) In short, a small scientific study has been finessed into a huge marketing enterprise. This has caused concern in the scientific community. Rauscher herself has reminded the public that people shouldn't draw conclusions about children's brain development, based on a study of college students. (10) Though no one has proven that Mozart's music can make children more precocious, there is no doubt that the music is beautiful, relaxing, and stimulating.
Each sentence below refers to a numbered sentence in the passage. Write the letter of the choice that gives the sentence a meaning that is closest to the original sentence.
This increase in , however, lasted for only ten to fifteen minutes. a. refinement b. ability c. trickery d. practicality