13 terms

Miller and Levine Chapter 9

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calorie
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Calorie (capital c)
used on food labels equal to 1000 calories
cellular respiration
the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen
6O2+C6H12O6 --->6CO2 +6H2O
the chemical equation for cellular respiration
aerobic
pathways that require oxygen
anaerobic
(like in Glycolysis) pathways that do not require oxygen
Photosynthesis v.s. Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, while cellular respiration puts it back in. Photosynthesis puts oxygen into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food.
glycolysis
first set of reactions in cellular respiration during which 1 molecule of glucose, a 6-carbon compound, is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
NAD+
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
matrix
innermost compartment of the mitochondrion
electron transport chain
it uses high- energy electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
fermentation
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
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