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Assign to Office (president)


Legislatures designating treasury money for specific purposes


Ratify Legislation (President)

Articles of Confederation

National documents predating the Constitution
"The Congress was responsible for conducting foreign affairs, declaring war or peace, maintaining an army and navy and a variety of other lesser functions. But the Articles denied Congress the power to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce and enforce laws."


Having two legislative chambers (House and Senate)

Bill of Rights

First Ten Amendments to the Constitution

Block Grants

Government grant with unspecified purposes

Cabinet Members

Appointed by president, serve as advisors

Categorical Grants

Grants with a specified purpose


Gathering of Supporters of a Political Party, held before primaries

Central Intelligence Agency

"an independent agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior US policymakers"

Conference Committee

Committee that includes members of the House and Senate, temporary


Aprove for Office (Congress)

Congressional Budget Impoundment Act

Act of 1974, assigns congress's role in budget process

Congressional Budget Office

Provides Congress with budget analysis and statistics

Connecticut Compromise

Created Bicameral Congress: House (large states) Senate (small states)


Voters within a Congressman's district

Declaration of Independence

1776, listed the woes and demands of colonies


Federal government transfers power to State government

Division of Powers

Assignment of power to state and federal government

Ear Marks

Section of a piece of Legislature that assigns funds for a specific purpose

Electoral College

System of Delegates who elect the President of The United States


Wealthy, well connected individuals, have the ability to exert political influence


Idea that majority prevails in election and political decisions


Political power represented through groups

Executive Office of President

Immediate and Support staff of president, headed by White House Chief of Staff

Executive Orders

Legally Binding Orders Issued by the President


Agency in charge of internal intelligence and regulating criminal activity

Federal Regulatory Services

Monitoring and Regulating Economic Activities

Federal Reserve Board

(WW) , A seven-member board that sets member banks reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions.


Balance of Power between Federal and State Government

Federalist 10

article supporting the ratification of the constitution, instructs on how to guard against factions. written by James Madison

Federalist 51

article supporting the ratification of the constitution, checks and balances and separation of powers. written by James Madison

Federalists v. Anti-Federalists

Support of the Ratification of the Constitution vs. Needs for the protection of individual rights

Formal Powers of the President

Commander in Chief, Chief Diplomat, Execute Laws, Legislative Powers

Formal Powers of the Vice President

Succeed the President, Break a tie vote in the Senate

Fourth Branch of Government

The Bureaucracy: hierarchical authority, job specialization, formalized rules

Franking Privileges

Congressmen's ability to send mail without postage to constituents

House Judiciary Committee

Standing Committee, oversees courts, administration, and law enforcement

House Majority Leader

Second in command of house, organizes debates on bills, and lines up legislative support

How a Bill Becomes a Law

Standing Committee->House/Senate Floor->Conference Committee-> Bicameral Vote-> President Approval

Impeachment Process

House Judiciary Committee Approves, House Votes on issues of Impeachment, Senate votes on conviction


Elected Official Running again for Office

Independent Regulatory Agency

Agencies created by congress, outside of president's control, have executive power

Interstate Commerce Commission

Regulated Raildroads, Automobiles, First Independent Agency

Iron Triangle

relationship between congress, the bureaucracy, and the interest group

John Locke (Second Treatise of Civil Government)

You give up some natural rights in exchange for proper government. If government does not represent your best interest you should rebel.

Judicial Review

Ability of Supreme court to determine constitutionality of legislature/actions of government

Layer Cake Federalism

Clear divisions between power of executive and state government


Congressmen trading votes to garner support for their legislation

Marble Cake Federalism

Mixed authority of state and federal government

MInority Rule

Ability of Minority to stall majority, ex: Filibuster

National Party Convention

Gathering held to elect/announce presidential candidate for political party

Natural Rights

Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness
Inalienable Rights that no government should deny

Necessary and Proper

Article 1, Section 8: Elastic Clause of constitution. Extends congresses power

Office of Management and Budget

submits president's annual budget proposal to congress


1 of Congresses 3 duties, to regulate executive branch

Political Linkage Institutions

society that connects people to the government

Pork Barrel Legislation

Legislation that brings benefits to constituents

Qualification of President

Natural Born Citizen, 35 years old, 14 years citizen of state

Qualifications of Senator

30 years old, 9 years citizen of state

Qualifications of Representative

25 years old, 7 years citizen of state


To approve/affirm a piece of legislature

Securities and Exchange Commission

protect investors, maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets, and facilitate capital formation.

Separation of Powers

Three branches of government that regulate eachother

Speaker of the House

Chosen from majority party in the house, most powerful position. Assigns bills to committees, sets time limits, picks members of conference committee

Strict vs. Loose Interpretation of Constitution

Whig vs. Stewardship
President should only do what is expressly allowed within the constitution vs. President should do all that is necessary and not forbidden by the constitution


Right to vote in political elections

Sunset Laws

Laws that remain in place only until a certain date

Term Lengths

Representative: 2 years
President: 4 years
Senator: 6 years
Supreme Court Justice: Indefinite (unless convicted of treason)

Unfunded Mandates

Orders issued upon states by federal government that must be funded by states

Veto Power

One of the president's formal powers, ability to reject a bill

Virginia Plan

Large state plan, Bicameral Representation

War Powers Act

Under this act President must notify congress of military action within 48 hours
Must withdraw troops within 60 days if authorization is not given by congress
30 days to institute withdrawl

Ways and Means Committee

Oldest Committee of congress, in charge of writing taxes

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