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75 terms

AP Government Midterm Review

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Appoint
Assign to Office (president)
Appropriations
Legislatures designating treasury money for specific purposes
Approve
Ratify Legislation (President)
Articles of Confederation
National documents predating the Constitution
"The Congress was responsible for conducting foreign affairs, declaring war or peace, maintaining an army and navy and a variety of other lesser functions. But the Articles denied Congress the power to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce and enforce laws."
-earlyamerica.com
Bicameral
Having two legislative chambers (House and Senate)
Bill of Rights
First Ten Amendments to the Constitution
Block Grants
Government grant with unspecified purposes
Cabinet Members
Appointed by president, serve as advisors
Categorical Grants
Grants with a specified purpose
Caucus
Gathering of Supporters of a Political Party, held before primaries
Central Intelligence Agency
"an independent agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior US policymakers" -CIA.gov
Conference Committee
Committee that includes members of the House and Senate, temporary
Confirm
Aprove for Office (Congress)
Congressional Budget Impoundment Act
Act of 1974, assigns congress's role in budget process
Congressional Budget Office
Provides Congress with budget analysis and statistics
Connecticut Compromise
Created Bicameral Congress: House (large states) Senate (small states)
Constituents
Voters within a Congressman's district
Declaration of Independence
1776, listed the woes and demands of colonies
Devolution
Federal government transfers power to State government
Division of Powers
Assignment of power to state and federal government
Ear Marks
Section of a piece of Legislature that assigns funds for a specific purpose
Electoral College
System of Delegates who elect the President of The United States
Elitists
Wealthy, well connected individuals, have the ability to exert political influence
Majoritarian
Idea that majority prevails in election and political decisions
Pluralists
Political power represented through groups
Executive Office of President
Immediate and Support staff of president, headed by White House Chief of Staff
Executive Orders
Legally Binding Orders Issued by the President
FBI
Agency in charge of internal intelligence and regulating criminal activity
Federal Regulatory Services
Monitoring and Regulating Economic Activities
Federal Reserve Board
(WW) , A seven-member board that sets member banks reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions.
Federalism
Balance of Power between Federal and State Government
Federalist 10
article supporting the ratification of the constitution, instructs on how to guard against factions. written by James Madison
Federalist 51
article supporting the ratification of the constitution, checks and balances and separation of powers. written by James Madison
Federalists v. Anti-Federalists
Support of the Ratification of the Constitution vs. Needs for the protection of individual rights
Formal Powers of the President
Commander in Chief, Chief Diplomat, Execute Laws, Legislative Powers
Formal Powers of the Vice President
Succeed the President, Break a tie vote in the Senate
Fourth Branch of Government
The Bureaucracy: hierarchical authority, job specialization, formalized rules
Franking Privileges
Congressmen's ability to send mail without postage to constituents
House Judiciary Committee
Standing Committee, oversees courts, administration, and law enforcement
House Majority Leader
Second in command of house, organizes debates on bills, and lines up legislative support
How a Bill Becomes a Law
Standing Committee->House/Senate Floor->Conference Committee-> Bicameral Vote-> President Approval
Impeachment Process
House Judiciary Committee Approves, House Votes on issues of Impeachment, Senate votes on conviction
Incumbent
Elected Official Running again for Office
Independent Regulatory Agency
Agencies created by congress, outside of president's control, have executive power
Interstate Commerce Commission
Regulated Raildroads, Automobiles, First Independent Agency
Iron Triangle
relationship between congress, the bureaucracy, and the interest group
John Locke (Second Treatise of Civil Government)
You give up some natural rights in exchange for proper government. If government does not represent your best interest you should rebel.
Judicial Review
Ability of Supreme court to determine constitutionality of legislature/actions of government
Layer Cake Federalism
Clear divisions between power of executive and state government
Logrolling
Congressmen trading votes to garner support for their legislation
Marble Cake Federalism
Mixed authority of state and federal government
MInority Rule
Ability of Minority to stall majority, ex: Filibuster
National Party Convention
Gathering held to elect/announce presidential candidate for political party
Natural Rights
Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness
Inalienable Rights that no government should deny
Necessary and Proper
Article 1, Section 8: Elastic Clause of constitution. Extends congresses power
Office of Management and Budget
submits president's annual budget proposal to congress
Oversight
1 of Congresses 3 duties, to regulate executive branch
Political Linkage Institutions
society that connects people to the government
Pork Barrel Legislation
Legislation that brings benefits to constituents
Qualification of President
Natural Born Citizen, 35 years old, 14 years citizen of state
Qualifications of Senator
30 years old, 9 years citizen of state
Qualifications of Representative
25 years old, 7 years citizen of state
Ratify
To approve/affirm a piece of legislature
Securities and Exchange Commission
protect investors, maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets, and facilitate capital formation. -SEC.gov
Separation of Powers
Three branches of government that regulate eachother
Speaker of the House
Chosen from majority party in the house, most powerful position. Assigns bills to committees, sets time limits, picks members of conference committee
Strict vs. Loose Interpretation of Constitution
Whig vs. Stewardship
President should only do what is expressly allowed within the constitution vs. President should do all that is necessary and not forbidden by the constitution
Suffrage
Right to vote in political elections
Sunset Laws
Laws that remain in place only until a certain date
Term Lengths
Representative: 2 years
President: 4 years
Senator: 6 years
Supreme Court Justice: Indefinite (unless convicted of treason)
Unfunded Mandates
Orders issued upon states by federal government that must be funded by states
Veto Power
One of the president's formal powers, ability to reject a bill
Virginia Plan
Large state plan, Bicameral Representation
War Powers Act
Under this act President must notify congress of military action within 48 hours
Must withdraw troops within 60 days if authorization is not given by congress
30 days to institute withdrawl
Ways and Means Committee
Oldest Committee of congress, in charge of writing taxes