ARCH 250 Test 4-- Study Guide


Terms in this set (...)

Neo-Palladian Architecture (Palladianism)
return to the principles of classical architecture promoted by Palladio (away from Baroque architecture associated with Stuart kings)
Who are the Neo-Palladians and what motivated them to move away
from the earlier style of Christopher Wren [Lecture, Buildings Across Time, pp. 381-383]?
New king, noblemen wanted to support him with a new form of architecture
What was the "Grand Tour" and how did it contribute to Neo- Palladian architecture and art collecting in Europe?
tour of France and Italy by wealthy young European men to gain classical education and to collect art and antiques (basically study abroad)
Louvre, East Facade (Louis Le Vau, Charles Lebrun, Claude Perrault) 1667-1670

Describe the architectural composition of the facade. How does the design of the facade reflect Italian
Renaissance principles? What about it is distinctly French?
rusticated ground floor, Balustrade at roofline, colonnade with pairs of Corinthian columns linking side pavilions to the center pavilion, pavilions at each end and in center, tripartite façade, central pavilion flanked by two symmetrical wings and pavilions at the ends, pilasters, aedicule, architrave frieze, pediment depicting Minerva (strategist) with the Muses (women who inspire the arts)
Louvre, East Facade (Louis Le Vau, Charles Lebrun, Claude Perrault) 1667-1670

How do we know this is a royal palace? What do the pairs of columns symbolize?
a. Louis XIV chose the architect and oversaw the reconstruction of this already established royal palace
b. The paired columns symbolize the monarch
Great Model Plan
Warrant Design Plan
based on basilica but with references to Gothic Architecture
saucer vaults
What do we know about Christopher Wren and his accomplishments?
a. One of the most prominent English architects at his time. One of the six commissioners selected for the reconstruction of London after the fire of 1666, which included 51 (just over half) of the burnt parish churches with his masterpiece being the reconstruction of Saint Paul's Cathedral
Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, England, Christopher Wren, 1675-1709

What happened to the medieval church that stood on this location?
Burned in the Great Fire on September 2, 1666
How did Christopher Wren's design of St. Paul's evolve from the Great Model Plan in 1673 to the Warrant
Design Plan in 1675?
a. The Great Model Plan design was too strongly linked with Roman Catholicism to be found acceptable by the cathedral's dean and chapter. Wren then designed a Latin-cross plan similar to the previous Gothic building on site. Construction began on the basis of his Warrant Design plan, and would be modified slightly over the 30-year building period.
Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, England, Christopher Wren, 1675-1709

What are some of the design elements based upon Renaissance and Baroque developments in Europe? What
specific buildings may have been a source of inspiration?
a. The cathedral is a basilica, a form that Wren admired in the basilica at Fano as published by Vitruvius. Most of Wren's nave-and-aisle churches were based on the Roman basilica. The structure is comprised of saucer domes in the nave and aisles, with buttresses above the aisle roofs. To hide these buttresses and impart a classical character to the exterior, Wren raised the aisle walls to create screens articulated in a manner similar to those in Inigo Jones' Banqueting House. The west front is based on Perrault's façade for the Louvre. Wren's façade compostition looks back to the heavily baroque church of S. Agnese in Piazza Novona, Rome, where the two facades are very similar in structure. Wren greatly changed the dome, not begun until 1697, from what was proposed in the "Warrant Design," to a triple-domed strategy employed by J.H. Mansart at his church of St. Louis-des-Invalides. The innermost dome is of masonry. Above this, a brick cone supports both the cupola and the wooden superstructure of the lead-covered exterior dome.
Palladian window (Serliana)
A large window consisting of a central arched section flanked by two narrow rectangular sections,
thermal window
half-windows are called thermal windows after the ancient Roman baths which provided ample lighting
What building inspired Lord Burlington when he designed Chiswick House? What about his design is new or
a. Based upon the design of Palladio's Villa Rotunda, Vicenza, Italy in 1566-1570 (built at a slightly smaller scale of the Palladian original)
b. Different from Palladio: Has one portico instead of four, its octagonal drum and dome owe more to Scamozzi than Palladio along with the use of thermal windows in the drum, Corinthian order columns, no central staircase, chimneys flutes are hidden in the four obelisks found on each corner of the roof, windows are based upon Palladio's Basilica in Vicenza = Palladian window (or Serliana) which uses three of these windows inside recess arches to distinguish the elevation of the garden, inside is based off of elements of Inigo Jones
Describe the exterior appearance of Chiswick House. What are some of the characteristics borrowed from the
Italian Renaissance?
a. Pavilions, pediments, serliana
What Palladian characteristics are seen on the exterior of Holkham Hall?
a. Tripartite design including pavilions and pediments, rustification, temple façade, the house is raised, and Palladian windows
Holkham Hall, Norfolk, England, William Kent, 1734

How did Coke's travels on the "Grand Tour" lead to the interior being designed to be a 'temple of the arts'? What
ancient buildings does it imitate?
a. Interior: Often refered to as the best example of Palladian ideals. Contained Oornate wallpaper, original paintings on the walls, everything is very grand
b. Imitates Roman buildings. Colonnade is a copy of the temple of fortuna virilis in Romes, and the ceiling imitates the Patheon
Holkham Hall, Norfolk, England, William Kent, 1734

How does this great house manage to survive in the 21st century?
a. Still the family home of the Earls of Leicester of Holkham and is open to the public certain days of the week
How does Boulée's design (shape, concept) for Sir Isaac Newton's cenotaph reflect French rationalism? [Lecture,
Buildings Across Time, pp. 390-391]
a. The plan is dominated by a sphere, one of the primary geometric solids, which was seen as the logical basis for architectural expression. The hypothetical project designed by Boullée to honor Newton's discoveries in celestial mechanics, was a hollow sphere 500 feet in diameter, the top half represents the dome of heaven, perforated with holes to give the impression of stars and the moon when viewed from the interior. Suspended inside the sphere is a giant lamp representing the Sun. Saw the sphere as a means to surround himself with the discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, and thus surrounding himself with Newton himself.
What do we know about Pierre Charles L'Enfant's background and training? How does his plan for the city of
Washington D.C. reflect ideas from the European Baroque, specifically the design of Versailles in France? [Lecture]
a. Went to school in the Royal Academy at the Louvre. He went beyond a simple survey and envisioned a city that where important buildings would occupy strategic places based on changes in elevation and the contours of waterways. Best known for his street layout of Washington, which is reflected off of Neo-classical architectural ideas developed while growing up in Versailles
What are some of the characteristics of Horace Walpole's house Strawberry Hill? What style of architecture is it?
a. Built with the intention to be his own little gothic castle which included: pinnacles, battlements, and a round tower
b. Style: Georgian Gothic revival (also Gothick), or Gothic/Medieval
What are some of the medieval monuments it deliberately imitates?
a. Rooms are inspired by Old St. Paul's Cathedral in London and also imitates Westminster Abbey
Utopian city
Describe the types of buildings and their arrangement in Ledoux's plan for the town of Chaux. How do the
location and decoration of each building reflect its purpose? How does the decoration draw upon Italian Mannerist
a. In plan the community is organized in a great oval of worker's houses, with the buildings for salt-making placed across the lesser diameter. Outside the oval are gardens, recreational facilities, and various communal buildings. The planned open space with residential and industrial development, the design for Chaux anticipated the Garden City movement of the late 19th century.
b. Buildings should be recognizable for what they were = "Speaking Architecture." Examples: The cemetery building would be a sphere to symbolize the eternal cosmos, Wheelwright's house is identified by large circles incorporated into its façade, the Inspector's house would be found at the beginning of the rive and have a hollow cylinder, which the river would run through
c. Ledoux's designs that actually got executed make use of simplified versions of the classical orders realized in heavily rusticated masonry.
Saline Royale de Chaux (Royal saltworks), France, town plan, Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, 1775-1779

How does the gatehouse combine Neo-classical architecture and decorative details that relate to salt production?
a. The façade has a monumental Doric colonnade, entablature and cornice, a heavily rusticated apse beneath huge rusticated voussoirs becomes a grotto, and the windows take the form of urns spilled over on their sides to disgorge petrified water. The severity of the composition reflects the state's jealous monopoly of salt production
Saline Royale de Chaux (Royal saltworks), France, town plan, Claude-Nicholas Ledoux, 1775-1779

How does this complex demonstrate the rising importance of industrialization in the 18th century?
a. While still being completely Neo-Classical in the architectural designs, they explore the phenomenon of 18th century industrialization by trying to bring order and simplicity back to the people that industrialization was beginning to take away
Altes Museum, Berlin, Prussia (Germany), Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1823-1828

Why did Schinkel choose to use the Classical orders in his buildings?
a. Schinkel saw architecture as a means to foster civic consciousness and saw Greek Classicism as its ideal symbolic language. He succeeded in uniting the architectural forms of fortification and civic splendor
Who commissioned Schinkel to build the Altes Museum?
a. King Friedrich Wilhelm III
Altes Museum, Berlin, Prussia (Germany), Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1823-1828

What type of building is this and why is this historically significant?
a. First public art museum in Europe, establishes connection between Neo-classical architecture and the fine arts in modern Europe
Altes Museum, Berlin, Prussia (Germany), Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1823-1828

What are some of the classical design elements found in the Altes Museum? How is their use in this building
reflected in later museums?
a. The façade is a giant Ionic colonnade raised on a high base and stretching the full width of the building, possesses a central rotunda. The museum is like the Pantheon caught between two temples both fronted by a stoa
b. Its orthogonal simplicity both creates a sense of urban dignity, and uses a great civic court to tie together the other influential government buildings
Who built the missions of San Antonio and what was their original purpose? How does this relate to the style of
architecture used for the churches? What are the missions today? [Lecture]
a. The Roman Church through the early Spanish government, to help spread the Roman Church's influence into the New World
b. New Spanish Baroque, the Spanish preferred the Baroque style of architecture
c. Now serve as World Heritage sites
University of Virginia campus, Charlottesville, Virginia, Thomas Jefferson, 1817-1826

What are some of the building types that Jefferson designed for the campus?
a. Library, Student rooms, lecture halls and faculty residence, colonnade connecting the 10 buildings around the central yard
University of Virginia campus, Charlottesville, Virginia, Thomas Jefferson, 1817-1826

What are some of the ancient Roman buildings that served as prototypes for these buildings?
1. The Rotunda = The Pantheon
2. Each pavilion also has a different architectural order based off of different Roman temples
3. A linking colonnade of roman arches around a central lawn, may gather its inspiration from the Chateau of Marly, a retreat outside of Versailles
How does Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia express his ideas about the importance of education in
a democracy? How does it refocus the architectural design to emphasize secular knowledge as opposed to theology and faith?
a. A democracy that was lead by a well educated populous would lead to a strong and efficient government
b. "Academic Village" would create a space where learning could be achieved openly and freely among students and faculty. His central piece to his design of the college was the Rotunda, a library, rather than most schools central piece being a place of worship. The other buildings would also teach the main subjects, rather than theology.
Why did people like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson believe that the Neoclassical style of architecture
was appropriate for the capitol building of the United States?
a. The neoclassical style of architecture is based off of the ancient Greek style. The Greeks invented democracy, so it is a reference to the creators of the chosen style of government
Who was the first architect of the capitol building? What was so symbolic about his original design?
a. Dr. William Thornton, born in the British West Indies who became a citizen in 1787
b. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was expected to design the Capitol, but his dismissal in 1792 due to his refusal to cooperate with the Commissioners of the Federal Buildings, resulted in other plans. A competition was suggested by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington that would award $500 and a city lot to whomever produced the winning plan by mid-July. None of the 17 plans submitted were satisfactory. In October, a letter arrived from Dr. William Thornton, a Scottish-trained physician living in the British West Indies, requesting an opportunity to submit his plan after the competition was closed. The Commissioners granted his request and President Washington commended the plan that was soon accepted by the Commissioners. His use of Classical architecture was symbolic of using the creators of Democracy's architecture style, as well as using the base of one of the greatest civilizations to base the newest republic at the time.
United States Capitol Building, Washington, D.C. William Thornton, Benjamin Latrobe, 1793 - 1866

Why did this building take so long to finish? What were some of the challenges and setbacks?
a. Construction was a laborious and time-consuming process: the sandstone used for the building had to be ferried on boats from the quarries at Aquia, Virginia; workers had to be induced to leave their homes to come to the relative wilderness of Capitol Hill; and funding was inadequate. Because of Thornton's inexperience, the initial work progressed under the direction of three architects in succession. Stephen H. Hallet and George Hadfield were dismissed because of inappropriate design changes they tried to impose; James Hoban, winner of the competition for the President's House, was placed in charge and saw to the completion of the north wing for the first session of Congres. Construction resumed under Benjamin Henry Latrobe who completed the south and north wings. By 1813, Latrobe, with his job done, departed with the wings connected by a temporary wooden passageway. On August 24, 1814, British troops set fire to the building during the War of 1812. A rainstorm prevented its complete destruction and Latrobe returned to Washington in 1815 to make repairs. He took this opportunity to make changes to the building's interior design and to introduce new materials, such as marble. Latrobe, however, resigned his post in November of 1817 because of construction delays and increasing costs. Charles Bulfinch, a Boston architect, was appointed Latrobe's successor in January of 1818. Continuing the restoration, he was able to make the chambers of the Senate and House, as well as the Supreme Court, ready for use by 1819.
What do we know about Benjamin Henry Latrobe's training and career? What did he contribute to the United
States Capitol Building?
a. Born in England, member of Freemasons. In 1796 he emigrated to the United States. Recognized as the first professionally trained architect to practice in the United States. Latrobe participated in the remodeling: House and Senate Chambers rebuilt using Greek orders, Supreme Court chamber rebuilt with a semi-dome ceiling and archway supported by Doric columns
b. Latrobe continued work on Thornton's design, but enlarged the porch. He also completed both the north and south wings, introducing into the work his own designs for American orders: tobacco-leaf capitals in the rotunda of the Senate chamber and corncob capitals in the north basement vestibule. He also used capitals based on those of the archaic Greek temples at Paestum in the Supreme Court chamber. Credited for completion of the House and Senate chambers
École des Beaux-Arts, established 1819
combined school or painting, architecture, and sculpture
École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures
engineering school
What role did the École des Beaux-Arts and the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures play in 19th century
architectural design in France and elsewhere? Who are some of famous graduates from each school? [Lecture,
Buildings Across Time, p. 413.
Americans: Richard Hunt Morris, Charles Follen McKim
What are the most important characteristics of the Beaux-Arts style of architecture? [Lecture]
classical exterior, hierarchy of rooms, intuitive design, expression of the axis and cross axis in elevation section and plan by receding planes, steps, floor markings
How did the "World Fairs" of the 19th century promote architectural and technological achievements? [Lecture]
it was a six month long collection of inventions from around the world
What was Paxton's training and background? How did he earn the commission to build the exhibition hall?
Background: English horticulturalist, garden designer, architect

submitted modular design using mass-produced materials and promised it would be done in 8 months
What are some of the innovations in material and construction introduced by Paxton's 'Crystal Palace'?
Innovations: furrow and ridge structural system with panels of glass fitted in them, power by humans and horses, elements of arch assembled on ground then lifted
Great Exhibition Hall or 'Crystal Palace', London, England, Joseph Paxton, 1851

What happened to this building after the Great Exhibition had closed?
After the exhibition ended, the building was dismantled and reerected in a park at Sydenham, outside London, where it remained until it was destroyed by fire in 1936.
Bibliothèque [Library] Ste. Genevieve, Paris, France, Henri Labrouste, 1842-50

Where did Labrouste go to school? How does the library express the ideals of this school?
French Ecole des Beaux- Arts

use of iron in the structure and decoration
Bibliothèque [Library] Ste. Genevieve, Paris, France, Henri Labrouste, 1842-50

Describe the appearance of the exterior of this building and identify what historic buildings it reflects.
exterior facade draws inspiration from Renaissance palozzo (masonry)
Bibliothèque [Library] Ste. Genevieve, Paris, France, Henri Labrouste, 1842-50

How does the interior combine Renaissance design with new materials such as cast iron?
Interior reading room inspired by barrel vault, but built with plaster and wire vaults resting on cast-iron semi-circular arches and columns.
Where was Garnier trained as an architect?
Ecole des Beaux-Arts
How does the Paris Opéra exemplify the principles of the Beaux-Arts style?
pairs of colossal columns, projecting and receding elements, decorative swigs and garlands
L'Opéra (Opera House), Paris, France, Jean-Louis-Charles Garnier, 1861-1875

How is the decoration particularly suited to its purpose?
decorative style- Second Empire
Describe Gustave Eiffel's area of training (where did he go to school) and technical expertise. What types of
structures did he build, what materials did he use, and what are some of his greatest innovations?
French engineer- Ecole Central des Arts et Manufactures

built bridges and viaducts

wrought iron, largest non suspension bridge

Garabit Viaduct over the Truyere River
Why was the 'Eiffel Tower' built in Paris at this time?
1886 French Ministry of Trade held a
competition to build 'a new world wonder', an iron tower to symbolize technological progress and industrial developmen
Eiffel Tower, Paris, France, Gustave Eiffel, 1889

How long did it take to build and what materials and processes contributed to its rapid construction?
26 months, components prefabricated then assembled on site with four pivoting cranes
Describe the materials and techniques used to build the Turbine Building at the Menier Factory.
Wrought-iron frame (exterior lattice
girders) with brickwork skin. Interior had
cast-iron columns => first true iron skeleton
Menier Factory, Turbine Building, Noisel-sur-Seine, France, Jules Saunier, 1871-1872

What materials are used to provide exterior decoration and how does this tell us about its original purpose?
Integration of structure and decoration seen in polychrome brickwork and iron frame made by Emile
Menier Factory, Turbine Building, Noisel-sur-Seine, France, Jules Saunier, 1871-1872

What purpose does this factory complex serve today?
Corporate headquarters of Nestle
What were Pugin's views on Gothic (medieval) architecture, especially as compared to Renaissance or
Neoclassical architecture? [Lecture, Buildings Across Time, pp. 420-421.]
Middle Ages and Gothic architecture = greater spirituality and craftsmanship
Who was John Ruskin and what role did he play in defining 19th century opposition to the Industrial Revolution?
[Lecture, Buildings Across Time, p. 422.]
a prolific critic of art and society, may be regarded as the originator of Arts and Crafts ideals
Why was it necessary to rebuild the Houses of Parliament in London? What style is the new building and why
was this style selected?
The government held competition for a new building to be designed in either Gothic or Elizabethan style. New design built around the surviving Westminster Hall and other structures
Houses of Parliament, London, England, Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, 1836-1868

Explain how Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin collaborated to create this building (who did what?).
Barry- plan, reflect the balance of powers (houses of lords and commons)
Pugin- Gothic decoration, perpendicular
Houses of Parliament, London, England, Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin, 1836-1868

How does the plan of the building reflect the government of Great Britain? How does it compare to the United
States Capitol building in Washington, D.C.?
Parliament looks older even though our capital is older
Gothic v federal style
How does the plan and decoration of the Church of the Sagrada Familia reflect medieval churches?
Eastern façade with sculptural composition of the Nativity, designed to look like a grotto.
The three portals represent Faith, Hope, and Charity.
Four towers represent the apostles Barnabas, Simon, Thaddeus, and Matthew
View of the northern side, Gaudí designed the building with a cloister, or ambulatory around the sides.
Church of the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain, begun 1882, Antoni Gaudi

What older and contemporary styles did Gaudí combine to create the style he called Catalan Modernisme?
Gaudi combines influences from
Gothic architecture and Art
Nouveau with his own artistic
Chicago School
New materials (iron and steel); new engineering (steel skeleton, raft foundations); simple exterior design came about
1893 Chicago World's Fair (Columbian Exposition)
fair intended to showcase the latest inventions in a variety of areas (agriculture, machinery, manufacturing, arts)
a mixture of plaster, cement, and jute fibers.
Make No Little Plans: Daniel Burnham and the American City

What role did Burnham and Root play in the development of the Columbian Exposition?
"Consulting Architects"
Make No Little Plans: Daniel Burnham and the American City

What did Burnham think the legacy of the fair should be?
the City Beautiful movement
Make No Little Plans: Daniel Burnham and the American City

What style was used for the main buildings in the "Court of Honor" at the Columbian Exposition?
Make No Little Plans: Daniel Burnham and the American City

What materials were used in their construction and how did this contribute to the speed with which they were built? What contributed to the uniform appearance of the buildings and why was it called the 'White City'
White City- bc everything was painted white because planned decorations ran out of time
Make No Little Plans: Daniel Burnham and the American City

How did architectural design and the architects of the Columbian Exposition influence public architecture across the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century?
Shaped expectations of what a fair should include (midway, halls to display the arts, buildings dedicated to showcasing inventions)
-Introduced millions of people to architectural styles from around the world and demonstrated how planning could shape modern cities.
-The Classical and Beaux-Arts architecture influenced the design and construction of public buildings in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.
terracotta cladding
clay molded, glazed, fired, and assembled on site
Chicago window
large central picture window with double-hung sashes on the sidess
What are some of the materials and techniques used to build the Reliance Building?
internal steel skeleton, load carried by trusswork columns

factory assembled two-story steel columns , terracotta cladding and glass attached to structural frame
Reliance Building, Chicago, Il. Daniel Burnham, John Root, and Charles B. Atwood, 1894-1895

What are some of the challenges faced by their architects? What were some of their innovations in design and structure that made their buildings a success?
Height of the buildings.
Reliance Building, Chicago, Il. Daniel Burnham, John Root, and Charles B. Atwood, 1894-1895

What was the original purpose of this building? What is it today?
Now- Burnham Hotel of the Kimpton family of boutique hotels

Originally- office building
Auditorium Building, Chicago, IL, Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, 1886-1890

What type of building is this? What sorts of activities took place here? How did this contribute to its financial
Originally combined theater, business offices, and hotel

combined use generates revenue from a variety of services (theaters do not make money 7 days a week)
Auditorium Building, Chicago, IL, Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, 1886-1890

Explain what Adler and Sullivan each contributed to their partnership. How does this building exemplify the
Chicago School and its approach to design?
Adler created the plan while Sullivan was in charge of the decoration.
Auditorium Building, Chicago, IL, Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, 1886-1890

What style did Sullivan use for architectural decoration inside?
Art Nouveau
Auditorium Building, Chicago, IL, Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, 1886-1890

How does this building compare to Garnier's Opera House in Paris?
The facades have similar elements
Fine Arts Building, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, IL Charles Atwood, 1893

Describe the architectural elements on façade of this building. What ancient buildings inspired its appearance?
Facade has caryatids in place of columns. These are based on the temple of
Athena Polias (Erechtheion) on the Acropolis of Athens
Fine Arts Building, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, IL Charles Atwood, 1893

What happened to this building after the Columbian Exposition?
The original stucco Fine Arts Palace was rebuilt as the Museum of Science and Industry and opened in in 1933
Boston Public Library, Boston, MA, McKim, Mead, and White, 1887-1895

How do the early buildings of McKim, Mead and White express the principles of the Beaux-Arts tradition?
The Boston Public Library was the first large free municipal library in the United States. Charles Follen McKim referred to this as his "palace for the people."
In 1986, the National Park Service designated the McKim Building a National Historic Landmark citing it as "the first outstanding example of Renaissance Beaux-Arts Classicism in America."
Boston Public Library, Boston, MA, McKim, Mead, and White, 1887-1895

What type of building is this and what does it symbolize about the cultural heritage of this city?
A library that houses the largest public collection of books
Boston Public Library, Boston, MA, McKim, Mead, and White, 1887-1895

Explain why the National Park Service designated the Boston Public Library a National Historic Landmark
The National Park Service designated the McKim Building a National Historic Landmark citing it as "the first outstanding example of Renaissance Beaux-Arts Classicism in America."
Boston Public Library, Boston, MA, McKim, Mead, and White, 1887-1895

How does it compare to Henri Labrouste's Bibliotheque Ste.-Geneviève in Paris?
exterior facade reflects the Beaux-Arts traditions and is made of Milford granite