15 terms

Unit 2 Psychology

attribution theory
- people tend to attribute other people's actions, misfortunes, and successes to their personal traits, rather than situational forces
fundamental attribution error
tendency to emphasize internal causes and ignore external pressures
when will someone's attitudes actually guide their behavior?
when the attitude and behavior are specific, strong, and unconscious, or developed from personal experience
Cognitive dissonance
- a highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes
- they hide these conflicting emotions
- explains why people undergo unpleasant experiences
normative social influence
the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them
informational social influence
- when we do not know how to behave, we copy other people
- they thus act as information sources for how to behave as we assume they know what they are doing
social loafing
a decrease in performance because of being in a group
social facilitation
an increase in an individual's performance because of being in a group
when group members lose their sense of personal identity and responsibility and the group "assumes" responsibility for their behavior
group polarization
when individuals in a group have similar, though not identical views, and their opinions become more extreme/pronounced
group think
occurs when members of a group are highly cohesive and strive for concurrence among members
social exchange theory
We help others if we perceive the benefits of helping to outweigh the costs
in-group favoritism
the tendency to like people in one's own in-group rather than out-group
Out-group homogeneity effect
The perception of out-group members as more similar to each other than in-group members
just world phenomenon
people tend to believe the world is just and that people both get what the deserve and deserve what they get