the movement of goods and services among nations without political or economic barriers
Comparative advantage theory
Theory that states that a country should sell to other countries those products that it produces most effectively and efficiently, and buy from other countries those products that it cannot produce as effectively or efficiently.
The advantage that exists when a country has a monopoly on producing a specific product or is able to produce it more efficiently than all other countries.
Balance of trade
The total value of a nation's exports compared to its imports measured over a particular period.
A favorable balance of trade; occurs when the value of a country's exports exceeds that of its imports.
An unfavorable balance of trade; occurs when the value of a country's imports exceeds that of its exports.
Balance of payments
The difference between money coming into a country (from exports) and money leaving the country (for imports) plus money flows from other factors such as tourism, foreign aid, military expenditures, and foreign investment.
selling products in a foreign country at lower prices than those charged in the producing country.
A global strategy in which a firm (the licensor) allows a foreign company (the licensee) to produce its product in exchange for a fee (a royalty).
A foreign country's production of private-label goods to which a domestic company then attaches its brand name or trademark; part of the broad category of outsourcing.
The value of one nation's currency relative to the currencies of other countries
Lowering the value of a nation's currency relative to other currencies.
A complex form of bartering in which several countries may be involved, each trading goods for goods or services.
The use of government regulations to limit the import of goods and services.
a tax imposed on imports
A limit on the number of products in certain categories that a nation can import.
a complete ban on the import or export of a certain product, or the stopping of all trade with a particular country.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
A 1948 agreement that established an international forum for negotiating mutual reductions in trade restrictions.
World Trade Organization
The international organization that replaces the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade, and was assigned the duty to mediate trade disputes among nations.
A regional group of countries that have a common external tariff, o internal tariffs, and a coordination of laws to facilitate exchange; also called a trading bloc. And example is the European Union.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Agreement that created a free trade area among the US, Canada, and Mexico.