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well supported testable explanation


change in living things over a period of time


preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism

Artificial Selection

when humans can select variations of organisms that are useful & breed these individuals

Struggle for existence

competition among members of species for food, space etc.


ability of an organism to survive & reproduce


inherited trait that increases an organisms survival

Survival for the fittest

also called natural selection; when individuals are better suited to environment

Natural Selection

how evolution occurs; changes in inherited traits of population

Common Descent

all species, living & extinct, came from 1 common ancestor "tree of life"

Gene Pool

all genes in a population

Gene frequency

how common a gene is in a population

Single gene trait

trait controlled by a *single gene (2 alleles)

Polygenic trait

trait controlled by *more than 1 gene


process of forming new species

Reproductive Isolation

species may be able to mate & the resulting offspring may be okay to reproduce, but if they aren't fertile than they can't

Behavioral Isolation

when 2 populations are able to breed but have differences in reproductive behavior that prevents mating

Geographic Isolation

when 2 populations are able to breed but are seperated by barriers (Mountains, Rivers)

Temporal Isolation

when 2 populations are able to breed but reproduce at different times

Hutton 1785

said earth is shaped by geological forces over time

Malthus 1798

said if human population continues to grow there wont be enough space and food

Lamarck 1809

first to propose an explanation of how things change over time; wasn't correct

Lyell 1833

processes occuring now have shaped the earth

Wallace 1858

writes to darwin about natural selection

5 types of evidence that support Darwins theory

Fossil record
Geographic distribution
Homologous structures
vestigial structures
similar embryology

Fossil record

shows gradual changes over time

Geographic Distribution

different locations (environments) that can cause variety of organism changes

Homologous Structures

organisms with similar body structures share common ancestor (similar function & structure)

Vestigial Structures

structure with no function (human apendix)

Similar Embryology

development of vertebrates are very similar

2 sources of variation in a population

Gene shuffling


change in DNA sequence

Gene Shuffling

when genes form new combinations during prophase 1 of meiosis


Time period when Darwin traveled & developed his ideas

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