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Organic Chemistry

The study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms

Organic Compounds

Carbon-based molecules. Found in living things

Inorganic Compounds

Do not contain carbon (water, salts ect. ). Found in living things

Carbon atoms can make ____ bonds


Macromolecules (polymers)

Large, complex molecules built of smaller/similar molecules


Building blocks of polymers

Dehydration Synthesis

Build polymers from monomers. One molecule of water must be removed to join to join subunits.


The breakdown of molecules with H2O

What are the 4 categories of macromolecules?

Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid


Small sugars= Monosaccharides
Starch,cellulose= Polysaccharides


Monomer of a carbs
Molecular formula= C6H12O6
Function= Fuel for cellular work; short term energy. Glucose, fructose, galactose. same formula diff properties


Molecules with same molecular formula, different structural formula


2 monosaccharides.
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Chemical Formula= C12H22O11


Polymers of a monosaccharides linked together. Function: Storage molecules, Structural compounds


Composed of C, H, and O
Diverse in function
Insoluable to water
Composite molecule rather than polymer


Fear of water


water loving

Fatty Acids

Component of triglycorides and phospholipids

Structure of Fatty Acid

Straight carbon that is hydrophobic (tail)
carboxyl group that is hydrophilic (head)


Made of 1 glycol and 3 fatty acids
Function: Long term energy storage in animals, isolation, and protection

Saturated Triglycerides

Stacks well, solid at room temp.
All single bonds between C atoms
Bad fats

Unsaturated Triglycerides

At least 1 double bond between a pair of C atoms
Bent shape
Dont stack well
Liquid at room temp
"good fats"


2 fatty acid tails and a phosphate group attach to the glycerol molecule


Composed of 4 fused rings. No fatty acids.
Cholesterol for cell membrane


Structure: Fatty acid chain+ alchol chain
Function: Protective coating/ water proofing

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