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25 terms

Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
The study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms
Organic Compounds
Carbon-based molecules. Found in living things
Inorganic Compounds
Do not contain carbon (water, salts ect. ). Found in living things
Carbon atoms can make ____ bonds
4
Macromolecules (polymers)
Large, complex molecules built of smaller/similar molecules
Monomers
Building blocks of polymers
Dehydration Synthesis
Build polymers from monomers. One molecule of water must be removed to join to join subunits.
Hydrolisis
The breakdown of molecules with H2O
What are the 4 categories of macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid
Carbohydrates
Small sugars= Monosaccharides
Starch,cellulose= Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides
Monomer of a carbs
Molecular formula= C6H12O6
Function= Fuel for cellular work; short term energy. Glucose, fructose, galactose. same formula diff properties
Isomers
Molecules with same molecular formula, different structural formula
Disaccharides
2 monosaccharides.
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Chemical Formula= C12H22O11
Polysaccharides
Polymers of a monosaccharides linked together. Function: Storage molecules, Structural compounds
Lipids
Composed of C, H, and O
Diverse in function
Insoluable to water
Composite molecule rather than polymer
Hydrophobic
Fear of water
Hydrophillic
water loving
Fatty Acids
Component of triglycorides and phospholipids
Structure of Fatty Acid
Straight carbon that is hydrophobic (tail)
carboxyl group that is hydrophilic (head)
-/-/-/-/<
Triglycerides
Made of 1 glycol and 3 fatty acids
Function: Long term energy storage in animals, isolation, and protection
Saturated Triglycerides
Stacks well, solid at room temp.
All single bonds between C atoms
Bad fats
Unsaturated Triglycerides
At least 1 double bond between a pair of C atoms
Bent shape
Dont stack well
Liquid at room temp
"good fats"
Phospholipids
2 fatty acid tails and a phosphate group attach to the glycerol molecule
Steroids
Composed of 4 fused rings. No fatty acids.
Cholesterol for cell membrane
Waxes
Structure: Fatty acid chain+ alchol chain
Function: Protective coating/ water proofing