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How did people used to view diseases?
-Saw them as supernatural
-Saw diseases as punishment for sins by Gods
A lot of the early history of microbiology was under the influence of what?
The social and theological beliefs of the times.
Why did people start to believe that there was more to microbiology than divine origin?
Because beliefs in "living agents" as the cause of disease slowly started growing.
What did Fracastoro believe?
He believed that there were things on clothing (etc.) that could cause disease.
Who is Robert Hooke?
-He published Micrographia in 1665.
-He studied the very small through ground lenses.
-He only saw quarts in the lenses.
What are some examples of things Leeuwenhoek tried to look at microscopically?
Feces, lake water, etc.
Leeuwenhoek didn't know that these animalcules caused disease, but what did he conclude?
That there were things in the world that he had never seen, an "invisible world of microorganisms."
6 Divisions of Microbiology?
Bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, protozoology, and phycology
When disease was seen as "supernatural," what did people do for treatment and prevention?
Sacrifices to appease the anger of the Gods
In Fracastoro's book what did his theory state?
That living agents, or "contagium vivum" caused disease
In Fracastoro's book, what three things did he say disease was transmitted by?
Direct contact, formites (inanimate objects), and air
What is spontaneous generation?
The notion that life can spontaneously arise from non-living sources
What is the definition of epidemiology?
The study of the source, cause, and mode of transmission of disease
What was Semmelweis' key to preventing blood poisoning of women in childbirth?
Hand washing with chlorine water.
He developed a vaccination that inoculated individuals with cowpox in order to heal those with smallpox
What did Louis Pasteur prove in regard to fermentation?
That yeasts were responsible for fermentation and bacteria soured wine
What are two specific things that Pasteur investigated?
The cause of cholera and the silkworm disease
What was Koch able to accomplish by adding gelatin to his broth?
Grow bacterial colonies in a petri dish
Postulate 2 states:
The microorganisms are isolated from the tissues of a dead animal, and a pure culture is prepared
Postulate 3 states:
Microorganisms from a pure culture are inoculated into a healthy, susceptible animal. The disease is reproduced.
Postulate 4 states:
The identical microorganisms are isolated and recultivated from the tissue specimens of the experimental animal.
In Pasteur's lab, anthrax and cholera temperature sensitivity did what?
It lead to principles of vaccination
Koch isolated the _____ _____ and determined that ______ is the key to _____ _____.
Tubercule bacillus; water; tuberculosis transmission
Why study microorganisms and viruses today?
1. There is still much to learn and understand.
2. It is an opportunity to study processes common to all life.
3. Microorganisms are important to disease, but also in environmental processes
Single cell protozoa and algae are ______, some of which are ____ ____, and some of which live ______ with other _______.
Protista, free-living, symbiotically, organisms
Who discovered that bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection?
Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck
What did Salvador Luria and Max Dulbruck discover?
That bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection
Early work on DNA as the genetic material was done by what 5 people?
Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty, Alfred Hershey, and Martha Chase
A pathogen can cause more than ____ ____, and a disease can be caused by more than ____ ____.
one disease, one microbe
What are symptoms of cholera?
It causes you to lose massive amounts of water in short amounts of time
What did Louis Pasteur say about fermentation?
That if wine, beer, bread, etc were not heated properly, these organisms could grow bacteria in wine
What did Pasteur realize about fermentation?
That mild heating of liquids would reduce the population/majority of organisms that would cause things to sour
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