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English Mid Term

Copyright everybody who I copied this lovely material from
STUDY
PLAY
Sir Gawain
wants agravain not to tell arthur about lancelot's treason
Sir Mordred
arthur kills him
King Arthur
married to Guinevere, Gawain's uncle
Guinevere
married to arthur, sleeps with lancelot and is put to death
Sir Lancelot
greatest and gentlest of all the knights, tight with arthur and commits adultery with guinevere
Excalibur
arthur's sword, bedivere throws it in the water
dover
arthur lands here with his troops, mordred meets arthur in battle here
sir bedivere
throws excalibur in the water
sir lucas the butler
tries to move arthur to safety, his intestines burn through his stomach
avalon
magical place of healing, arthur says he is going here
canterbury
the crowning takes place here
camelot
arthur's capital city, mordred lives here while arthur is away
sir agravain
tells arthur that lancelot has been sleeping with guinevere
Wanderer
Speaker: Exiled Viking soldier who has nowhere to or any person who will support him. In the end, he believes that men who seem to be unhappy are those who do not follow God, and the ones that are happy are God's most faithful. This speaker see's God as his rock, and foundation.
Wanderer
Antithesis
Wanderer
has caesura in every line that forms a kind of beat
Wanderer
repetition of the word "one" emphasizes loneliness
Wanderer
Introduction and Conclusion are Christian
Wanderer
speaker has to do with fate
Wanderer
Emotional because his lord died --> he is looking for a new lord
Wanderer
Death --> negative
Seafarer
an exile by choice, because he chose life as a sailor, which cuts him off from all human relationships
Seafarer
personification of the soul and death
Seafarer
christian
Seafarer
Summer= landlovers "ignorant ease"="weakest"- the meek shall inherit the earth (Christian)
Seafarer
sea is his vocation
Seafarer
death-positive (go to heaven)
Beowulf
Protagonist; Hero of the Geats
Grendel
Monster descended from Cain. Plagues King Hrothgar's Mead Hall
King Hrothgar
King of the Danes. Grendel terrorizes his mead hall every night
Grendel's mom
Second monster Beowulf fights. Unnamed swamp-hag
The language of the play
Old English
Why is the story of Beowulf important?
First story written in a version of English.
Grendel's severed arm
Torn from him by Beowulf in their first match. Hung as a trophy over the mead hall door.
The Fire Dragon
Third and final monster Beowulf fights
The Host (Harry Bailey)
The owner of the Tabard Inn, who volunteers to travel with the pilgrims. He promises to keep everyone happy, be their guide and arbiter in disputes, and judge the tales.
The Knight
Socially the most prominent person on the pilgrimage, epitomizing chivalry, truth, and honor. He stands apart from the other pilgrims because of his dignity and status.
The Miller
A drunken, brash, and vulgar man who rudely interrupts the Host, demands that his tale be next, and warns everyone that his tale about a carpenter will be vulgar because it is true.
The Reeve
A very old and irritable man who was once a carpenter. He resents the Miller's tale about a stupid old carpenter.
The Man of Law (or Sergeant of Law)
A lawyer and one of the high justices of the court. He is cautious, suspicious, and wise, and one of the more cultivated men among the pilgrims.
The Cook
Known for his cooking and characterized by a chancre sore that runs with pus. His story is incomplete.
The Wife of Bath (Alisoun)
Characterized as gat-toothed, somewhat deaf, and wearing bright scarlet red stockings. She has had five husbands (the last half her age), enjoys her freedom, and is openly sensual.
Hubert, the Friar
A sensual, licentious man who seduces young girls and then arranges their marriages. He loves money and knows the taverns better than the poor houses.
The Summoner
An officer of the church who calls people for a church trial. He is as ugly as his profession; he frightens children with his red complexion, pimples and boils, and skin infected with scales.
The Clerk
A sincere, devout student at Oxford University who loves learning and is respected by all the pilgrims. He is very poor because he spends all his money on books.
The Merchant
A shrewd and intelligent man who knows how to strike a good bargain and is a member of the rich rising middle class.
The Squire
A vain, lusty young man and a candidate for knighthood. He can sing, write poetry, and ride a horse very well, and considers himself a lady's man.
The Franklin
A large and wealthy landowner who enjoys fine living and good companionship.
The Shipman
A huge, uncouth man who can steer a ship but flounders on his horse.
The Prioress (Madame Eglantine)
A very genteel lady who is coy and delicate. She has precise manners, eats as an aristocrat would, and wears a gold brooch with "Love conquers all" inscribed in Latin.
The Physician
A doctor who can speak knowingly of medicines, drugs, and humours, and who knows astrology as well. He is fond of gold and makes a lot of money during the plague season.
The Pardoner
The most complex of all the pilgrims. He is an intellect and uses advanced psychological means to gain his objective. Although he is not a good person, he can preach a good sermon.
The Monk
A man who tends the property of the monastery. He is fat and happy, loves good food and wine, and finds the taverns more to his liking than the cold, severe monastery.
The Nun's Priest
The priest of the church who accompanies the nuns so that they may offer up their confessions.
The Second Nun
A very devout nun who, because she believes that idleness leads to sin, begins her story immediately.
The Canon and the Canon's Yeoman
Although not one of the pilgrims, the Canon appears with his servant (the Yeoman) but leaves when his Yeoman begins a tale.
The Manciple
The steward for a law school. Although not as intelligent as the law students, he is clever and shrewd enough to be able to put away some money for himself.
The Parson
A very poor but very holy and virtuous religious man who tells a highly moral tale. He gives his scant money to his poor parishioners and tries to live the perfect life and set an ideal for others.
Jankyn ("Johnny")
The Wife of Bath's fifth husband, who caused her trouble and had to be tamed into submission.
The Three Rioters
Drunken revelers who decide to find Death and slay him.
Pardoner
Sells Papal pardons to sinners; Reveals his own corruption; ends up asking to travelers to pay him for pardons; Host confronts him; yellow hair; tells the pardoner's tale
greed is the root of all evil
One of the main themes of the Pardoner's Tale
8 bushels of gold coins
the three men try to find Death under an oak tree but instead find...
youngest man
goes to town to fetch bread and wine; poisons other two
Hyperbole
extravagant exaggeration
Godzilla
Real lizard monster that attacked Tokyo 1964; he is not a pillow pet
Italian Sonnet (Petrarchian)
14 lines composed of 1 octave (ABBA ABBA) and 1 sestet (CD CD CD or CDE CDE); octet has the problem that the sestet solves
Shakespearean sonnet
a sonnet consisting three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab cdcd efef gg; 14 lines
*1. Read it* 2. Symbols? 3. Special words? 4. Substitute your new findings and read again
Steps to understanding a poem:
Edmund Spenser
wrote The Faerie Queene and the Shepheardes Calendar
Ben Jonson
English dramatist and poet who was the first real poet laureate of England (1572-1637); wrote Volpone, the alchemist, and on my first son
John Milton
Puritan writer, theologian, and political thinker. He wrote Areopagitica, Lycidas, and Paradise Lost, the last one which he wrote while blind - skill
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603, influenced much of the literature we read
Gunpowder Plot
a conspiracy in 1605 in England to blow up James I and the Houses of Parliament to avenge the persecution of Catholics in England
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616), wrote many sonnet which were based upon love, life, and God
Bede
(Roman Catholic Church) English monk and scholar (672-735)
Kenning
A device employed in Anglo-Saxon poetry in which the name of a thing is replaced by one of its functions or qualities, as in "ring-giver" for king and "whale-road" for ocean.
caesura
a break or pause (usually for sense) in the middle of a verse line
alliteration
use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
chivalry
the medieval principles of knighthood
iambic pentameter
a poetic meter that is made up of 5 stressed syllables each followed by an unstressed syllable
South Africa
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