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compact bone

stripe or band in muscle tissue

skeletal muscle

striations or stripe but voluntary; called muscle fibers because they overlap

cardiac muscle

muscl that is striated but involuntary; uses more ATP and has more mitochondria than any other muscle; each cell has one nucleus

smooth muscle

muscle surrounds blood vessels and digestive organs; involuntary; found in the walls of the stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and other internal organs

vitamin D

synthesized by skin when in sun, vitamin


protein fiber matrix in which calcium and phosphorus are deposited


thin filaments of muscle; contains a protein


thick filaments of muscle; contains a protein

muscle contractions

occurs when a thin actin filament slides past a thick myosin filament


source of energy


needs ATP as an energy source and calcium


mineral needed for muscle contraction; this covers the active site to prevent contractions from occuring


a synapse and neurotransmitter that is released from vesicles in the axon terminal and diffuses across the synapse to stimulate the muscle cell


tissue that connects MUSCLE TO BONE


tissue that connects BONE TO BONE


layer containing nerve endings, capillaries, sweat glands, and hair follicles


pigment that produces brown skin coloring


hair and nails are made of this tough fiberous protein


outermost laer of skin; composed of mainly dead cells

sebaceous glands

gland making waxy or oily material used for waterproofing and keeping epidermis flexible; aka oil glands

hair follicles

tube like pockets of epidermal cells that make hair cells and external keratin

sweat glands

gland producing substances released for export to the outside environment


aka swear; contains mostly water and salts, a few other chemical compunds

cellular respiration

produces to substances as products-carbon dioxide and water


the ammount of heat energy given off is mesured and expressed by this term


antibodies and hemoglobin are made of this; supplies raw material for growth, muscle, bones, skin, hair, finger nais, antibodies and hemoglobin; its shape is determined by temperature and solvent its dissolved in


main source of energy for humans; sucrose and starch are examples

fats (lipids)

used for making cell membranes, steroid hormones, and to store energy; do not dissolve in water

saturated fats

solid at room temperature; each carbon atom is attached to 4 other atoms

unsaturated fats

contains atleast one or more double bonds between carbon atoms


peanuts beans and seeds

essential amino acids

found in a combination of legumes and grains; builiding blocks of proteins


contains hundreds of amino acids, a protein or RNA that speeds up the matabolic reactions without being permanently change or destroyed

active site

part of the enzyme where the substrate attaches during a chemical reaction

salivary glands

digests carbs into sugar


peristalsis moves food through this


where both chemical and mechanical digestion occurs and expands more than twice its regular size


a hole in your stomach; bacteria stress, taking medication without water


round circular muscle that closes off parts of the digestive system


a mixture of food and gastric fluids

small intestine

where most chemical digestion takes place ; responsible for deotoxifying alcohol and other poisonous substance; most nutrients are absorbed in villi here


first 10-12 inches of small intestine; a large number of enzymes dump into this area from the liver and pancreas


fingerlike projections which increase the surface area to absorb nutrients to be put into the blood stream


produces digestive enzymes and insulin


produces bile and stores glycogen

large intestine

aka colon, reabsorbs water


contractions of muscles pushing food through the digestive system

sodium bicarbonate

neutralizes acid in small intestine


hormone which regulates sugar levels; lack of this can cause coma, high blood sugar, diabetes

glycogen and glucose

stored in the liver; regulates blood sugar

loop of henle

tubule to capillary


1 ft long tube that leads from each kidney to the bladder


flexible sack for storing urine

endocrine glands

makes a substance that stays in the body; estrogen, insulin

exocrine glands

produces a substance that leaves the body; bile sweat, tears

steroid hormone

hormone triggering DNA transcript

non-steroid hormone

hormone that is not cholesterol based


primary hormone taht stimulates lining of uterus to thicken


building with light; making sugar with light, has two parts: light and dark reaction


compunds that absorb light


absorbs orange, red violet and blue light


has parallel veins in leaves, random cross section of water canals in veins. 3,6,9 grouped petals, branching roots; a plant with out vascular tisue


has branching veins in leaves, organized water canals in veins, 4 or 5 grouped petals; taped roots, vascular tubes


one set of chromosomes


produced by mitosis, 2 sets of chromosomes


different forms of the parent cell, another name for a haploid cell


reduces chromosome number in gametes; results in the formation of 4 gametes and reduces the number of chromosomes


produces equal daughter cells;results in 2 new cells that are identical to the original cell


made up of condensed DNA


long threadlike DNA; uncoiled DNA complex


chromosomes are attached to eachother here; where chromatids join to each other and spindle fibers attach


spindle fibers attach one end here

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