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BIO FINAL xoxo

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compact bone
stripe or band in muscle tissue
skeletal muscle
striations or stripe but voluntary; called muscle fibers because they overlap
cardiac muscle
muscl that is striated but involuntary; uses more ATP and has more mitochondria than any other muscle; each cell has one nucleus
smooth muscle
muscle surrounds blood vessels and digestive organs; involuntary; found in the walls of the stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and other internal organs
vitamin D
synthesized by skin when in sun, vitamin
cartilage
protein fiber matrix in which calcium and phosphorus are deposited
actin
thin filaments of muscle; contains a protein
myosin
thick filaments of muscle; contains a protein
muscle contractions
occurs when a thin actin filament slides past a thick myosin filament
ATP
source of energy
crossbridges
needs ATP as an energy source and calcium
calcium
mineral needed for muscle contraction; this covers the active site to prevent contractions from occuring
acetylcholine
a synapse and neurotransmitter that is released from vesicles in the axon terminal and diffuses across the synapse to stimulate the muscle cell
tendon
tissue that connects MUSCLE TO BONE
ligaments
tissue that connects BONE TO BONE
dermis
layer containing nerve endings, capillaries, sweat glands, and hair follicles
melanin
pigment that produces brown skin coloring
keratin
hair and nails are made of this tough fiberous protein
epidermis
outermost laer of skin; composed of mainly dead cells
sebaceous glands
gland making waxy or oily material used for waterproofing and keeping epidermis flexible; aka oil glands
hair follicles
tube like pockets of epidermal cells that make hair cells and external keratin
sweat glands
gland producing substances released for export to the outside environment
perspiration
aka swear; contains mostly water and salts, a few other chemical compunds
cellular respiration
produces to substances as products-carbon dioxide and water
calories
the ammount of heat energy given off is mesured and expressed by this term
protein
antibodies and hemoglobin are made of this; supplies raw material for growth, muscle, bones, skin, hair, finger nais, antibodies and hemoglobin; its shape is determined by temperature and solvent its dissolved in
carbs
main source of energy for humans; sucrose and starch are examples
fats (lipids)
used for making cell membranes, steroid hormones, and to store energy; do not dissolve in water
saturated fats
solid at room temperature; each carbon atom is attached to 4 other atoms
unsaturated fats
contains atleast one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
legumes
peanuts beans and seeds
essential amino acids
found in a combination of legumes and grains; builiding blocks of proteins
enzymes
contains hundreds of amino acids, a protein or RNA that speeds up the matabolic reactions without being permanently change or destroyed
active site
part of the enzyme where the substrate attaches during a chemical reaction
salivary glands
digests carbs into sugar
esophagus
peristalsis moves food through this
stomach
where both chemical and mechanical digestion occurs and expands more than twice its regular size
ulcers
a hole in your stomach; bacteria stress, taking medication without water
sphincters
round circular muscle that closes off parts of the digestive system
chyme
a mixture of food and gastric fluids
small intestine
where most chemical digestion takes place ; responsible for deotoxifying alcohol and other poisonous substance; most nutrients are absorbed in villi here
duodenum
first 10-12 inches of small intestine; a large number of enzymes dump into this area from the liver and pancreas
villi
fingerlike projections which increase the surface area to absorb nutrients to be put into the blood stream
pancreas
produces digestive enzymes and insulin
liver
produces bile and stores glycogen
large intestine
aka colon, reabsorbs water
peristalsis
contractions of muscles pushing food through the digestive system
sodium bicarbonate
neutralizes acid in small intestine
insulin
hormone which regulates sugar levels; lack of this can cause coma, high blood sugar, diabetes
glycogen and glucose
stored in the liver; regulates blood sugar
loop of henle
tubule to capillary
ureter
1 ft long tube that leads from each kidney to the bladder
bladder
flexible sack for storing urine
endocrine glands
makes a substance that stays in the body; estrogen, insulin
exocrine glands
produces a substance that leaves the body; bile sweat, tears
steroid hormone
hormone triggering DNA transcript
non-steroid hormone
hormone that is not cholesterol based
progesterone
primary hormone taht stimulates lining of uterus to thicken
photosynthesis
building with light; making sugar with light, has two parts: light and dark reaction
pigment
compunds that absorb light
chlorophyll
absorbs orange, red violet and blue light
monocots
has parallel veins in leaves, random cross section of water canals in veins. 3,6,9 grouped petals, branching roots; a plant with out vascular tisue
dicots
has branching veins in leaves, organized water canals in veins, 4 or 5 grouped petals; taped roots, vascular tubes
haploid
one set of chromosomes
diploid
produced by mitosis, 2 sets of chromosomes
gamete
different forms of the parent cell, another name for a haploid cell
meiosis
reduces chromosome number in gametes; results in the formation of 4 gametes and reduces the number of chromosomes
mitosis
produces equal daughter cells;results in 2 new cells that are identical to the original cell
chromosome
made up of condensed DNA
chromatin
long threadlike DNA; uncoiled DNA complex
centromere
chromosomes are attached to eachother here; where chromatids join to each other and spindle fibers attach
centriole
spindle fibers attach one end here