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Social Statistics Chapter 1
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Terms in this set (29)
Statisitics
Quantitative methods used to measure and analyze empirical data
Measurement
The act of recording an observation by assigning a value or score to the observation
Variable
Any attribute or characteristic which measures differently between cases in a distribution
Nominal Scale
A type of scale which measures differences of kind between categories but not differences of degree within categories
Ordinal Scale
A type of scale that measures rank-order differences within a category but does not specify precisely how much more or less one item measured on the scale is compared to another
Metric Scale
A type of scale based on equal intervals which specifies precisely how much more or less one item measured on the scale is compared to another
Array
A univariate distribution of scores organized in either descending or ascending order
Range
A measure of how spread out the scores in a distribution are by calculating the difference between the highest and lowest scores
Simple Frequency Distribution
A distribution of scores according to their frequencies
Relative Frequency Distribution
The frequencies of a distribution of scores converted into percentages
Grouped Frequency Distribution
A distribution of scores organized into class intervals according to their frequncies
Class Interval
The range of score values that define score intervals in a grouped frequency distribution
Frequency Polygon
A line graph constructed by plotting the coordinates of score values and their frequencies on a grid
Histogram
Graph of a group frequency distribution constructed by converting a frequency polygon into a series of "bars" whose heights indicate the frequency of each class interval
Mode
That measure of central tendency which is the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
Mean
The most commonly used measure of central tendency for metric scale distributions, around which the sum of the deviations is equal to zero
Median
That measure of central tendency that divides a distribution into two equal portions and is therefore effected by extreme values
Positive Skew
A distribution in which the majority of scores are clustered toward the higher end of the scale while the "tail" of the distribution points to the low end
Negative Skew
A distribution in which the majority of scores are clustered toward the lower end of the scale while the "tail" of the distribution points to the low end
Normal Distribution
A symmetrical distribution in which the majority of scores cluster in the middle of the scale so that the mean, median, and mode all coincide and the frequency of scores which deviate from the midpoint of the distribution becomes smaller and smaller toward the extreme ends of the scale
Deviation Score
The amount that a single score deviates above or below the mean of a distribution of scores
Variance
Measure of dispersion which is calculated by computing the mean of the sum of squares
Standard Deviation
Measure of dispersion which is calculated by computing the square root of the variance
Percentage
%=f/n
Range (equation)
R=UL-LL
Mdn
N+1/2
Mean (equation)
Sum of x/N
s^2
SS/N
S
square root of s^2
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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