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storm-and-stress view of adolescence
G. Stanley Hall's view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict & mood swings
Margaret Mead's View of Adolescence
Adolescence is not biological, but sociocultural; not all cultures have angsty teens
inventionist view of adolescence
Adolescence is a sociohistorical creation; schools, work & economics: adolescence is a byproduct of these institutions
effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation (but not actual chronological age).
name given to the generation born after 1980, the first to come of age/become adults in the new millennium: A) ethnic diversity: tolerant & open-minded, B) connection to technology
a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad category of people
Adolescent Generalization Gap
(Joseph Adelson): Generalizations that are based on information about a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents
Positive Youth Development (PYD)
(Positive Psychology approach); emphasizes the strengths of youth and the positive qualities and developmental trajectories desired for youth: competence, confidence, connection, character, caring/compassion
the settings in which development occurs; influenced by historical, economic, social & cultural factors
the course of action designed by the national gov. to influence the welfare of its citizens
Physical changes in an individual's body (height/weight gain, development of brain, hormonal changes)
Changes in an individual's emotions, personality, relationships with others, and social contexts
The developmental period that extends from birth to 18-24 mos. Time of extreme dependency on adults. When psychological activities begin
Developmental period between the end of infancy to age 5-6. Learn to become more self-sufficient
Middle and Late Childhood
Developmental period between 6 and 10-11 yrs. Master fundamental skills of reading, writing, and math; exposed to culture, achievement.
begins in 20s-30s; establishing personal & economic independence, career development
Developmental period that lasts from age 60-death. ADjusting to decreasing strength and health, retirement, reduced income
Transition from adolescence to adulthood (18 to 25 yrs); experimentation & exploration
Adapting positively and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances
ISsue involving the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by an organism's biological inheritance (nature) or by its environmental experiences (nurture)
focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages
Early-Later Experience Issue
Issue focusing on the degree to which early experiences or later experiences are the key determinants of development
Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.
Theory that includes eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
A theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
Theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it
Social cognitive theory
Theory that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
Tehory that development reflects the influence of five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
Relations between microsystems or connections between contexts (Relation of family experiences to school experiences, etc.)
Links between a social setting in which the adolescent does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context (husband's experience at home influenced by wife's experiences at work)
Involves the culture in which adolescents live (behavior patterns, beliefs of the group of people that the adolescent lives within)
Consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances (ex. divorce)
Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
Does not follow any one theoretical approach but takes the best features from each theory
Observing behavior in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation
Test that has uniform procedures for administration and scoring; allows a person's performance to be compared with performance of others
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
Research Method where participants are given electronic pagers; when they're paged, they have to report things.
Research that describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
The number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables
Research that is very regulated, manipulating only one factor, to study causality
Research that involves studying people all at one time (studying different age groups but collecting the data all at once)
Research that involves studying the same individuals over a period of time, usually several years or more
A preconceived notion about the abilities of females and males that prevents individuals from pursuing their own interests and achieving their potential
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