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Adolescence Ch1

Psych of Adolescence
STUDY
PLAY
storm-and-stress view of adolescence
G. Stanley Hall's view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict & mood swings
Stanley Hall's View of Adolescence
Influenced by Darwin; biological; storm-and-stress
Margaret Mead's View of Adolescence
Adolescence is not biological, but sociocultural; not all cultures have angsty teens
inventionist view of adolescence
Adolescence is a sociohistorical creation; schools, work & economics: adolescence is a byproduct of these institutions
Cohort effects
effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation (but not actual chronological age).
Millenials
name given to the generation born after 1980, the first to come of age/become adults in the new millennium: A) ethnic diversity: tolerant & open-minded, B) connection to technology
Stereotype
a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad category of people
Adolescent Generalization Gap
(Joseph Adelson): Generalizations that are based on information about a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents
Positive Youth Development (PYD)
(Positive Psychology approach); emphasizes the strengths of youth and the positive qualities and developmental trajectories desired for youth: competence, confidence, connection, character, caring/compassion
Contexts
the settings in which development occurs; influenced by historical, economic, social & cultural factors
Social Policy
the course of action designed by the national gov. to influence the welfare of its citizens
Biological Processes
Physical changes in an individual's body (height/weight gain, development of brain, hormonal changes)
Cognitive Processes
Changes in an individual's thinking and intelligence
Socioemotional processes
Changes in an individual's emotions, personality, relationships with others, and social contexts
Development
The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span.
Prenatal Period
Time between conception and birth (a time of tremendous growth)
Infancy
The developmental period that extends from birth to 18-24 mos. Time of extreme dependency on adults. When psychological activities begin
Early Childhood
Developmental period between the end of infancy to age 5-6. Learn to become more self-sufficient
Middle and Late Childhood
Developmental period between 6 and 10-11 yrs. Master fundamental skills of reading, writing, and math; exposed to culture, achievement.
Early adolescence
Middle school years; includes pubertal change
Late adolescence
Latter half of the second decade of life; career interests, identity exploration
Early adulthood
begins in 20s-30s; establishing personal & economic independence, career development
Middle adulthood
Age 35-60; increasing interest in transmitting values to the next generation
Late adulthood
Developmental period that lasts from age 60-death. ADjusting to decreasing strength and health, retirement, reduced income
Emerging adulthood
Transition from adolescence to adulthood (18 to 25 yrs); experimentation & exploration
Resilience
Adapting positively and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances
Nature-nuture issue
ISsue involving the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by an organism's biological inheritance (nature) or by its environmental experiences (nurture)
Continuity-discontinuity issue
focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages
Early-Later Experience Issue
Issue focusing on the degree to which early experiences or later experiences are the key determinants of development
Theory
an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions
Hypotheses
Specific assertions and predictions that can be tested
Psychoanalytic theories
Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.
Erikson's Theory
Theory that includes eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
Piaget's Theory
A theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
Vygotsky's Theory
A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
Information-processing theory
Theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it
Social cognitive theory
Theory that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
Tehory that development reflects the influence of five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
Microsystem
Setting in which the adolescent lives (family, peers, school)
Mesosystem
Relations between microsystems or connections between contexts (Relation of family experiences to school experiences, etc.)
Exosystem
Links between a social setting in which the adolescent does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context (husband's experience at home influenced by wife's experiences at work)
Macrosystem
Involves the culture in which adolescents live (behavior patterns, beliefs of the group of people that the adolescent lives within)
Chronosystem
Consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances (ex. divorce)
Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
Does not follow any one theoretical approach but takes the best features from each theory
Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation
Standardized Test
Test that has uniform procedures for administration and scoring; allows a person's performance to be compared with performance of others
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
Research Method where participants are given electronic pagers; when they're paged, they have to report things.
Case Study
An in-depth look at a single individual
Descriptive Research
Research that aims to observe and record behavior
Correlational research
Research that describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
Correlation Coefficient
The number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables
Experimental Research
Research that is very regulated, manipulating only one factor, to study causality
Independent Variable
The factor that is being manipulated
Dependent Variable
The factor that is measured (can change as the other variable is manipulated)
Cross-sectional Research
Research that involves studying people all at one time (studying different age groups but collecting the data all at once)
Longitudinal Research
Research that involves studying the same individuals over a period of time, usually several years or more
Gender Bias
A preconceived notion about the abilities of females and males that prevents individuals from pursuing their own interests and achieving their potential
Ethnic Gloss
Using an ethnic label in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as more homogenous than it really is