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World History Final

Porterfield World History Chapters 9 and 10
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Clovis
Strong military leader who established the Frankish kingdom; the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity (around 500) and gain support of the Roman Catholic Church
Gregory I
pope from 590 to 604; known as Gregory the Great, he strengthened the power of the pope, was the leader of the city of Rome and its surrounding territories, and increased his spiritual authority over the Church in the West.
Saint Benedict
monk who wrote a set of rules in the sixth century that guided his community of monks; the Benedictine rule became the model for monasticism in the Catholic Church.
Charlemagne
Frankish king known as Charles the Great ruled 768-814 who greatly expanded his empire to cover much of western and central Europe; in 800, he became "emperor of the Romans," symbolizing the unification of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements.
Pepin
mayor of the palace who assumed the Frankish kingship for himself and his family in the 700s
Carolingian Empire
lands ruled by Charlemagne; much of western and central Europe
Hungary
region in eastern Europe; settled by the Magyars
Magyars
People from western Asia who moved into central Europe at the end of the 9th century, settled in Hungary, and invaded western Europe
Vikings
Norseman of Scandinavia (a Germanic people) who invaded many areas of Europe in the 9th century. These warriors were excellent shipbuilders and sailors. They settled in Normandy, France.
Normandy
coastal region in northwestern France; settled by the Norseman (Vikings) in the 900s
Eleanor of Aquitaine
heiress to the duchy of Aquitaine; married two kings (King Louis VII of France and King Henry II of England) and mother of two kings (Richard and John of England)
Henry II
king of England from 1154 to 1189; expanded the king's power and the power of the royal courts
William of Normandy
Defeated King Harold to become king of England in 1066 the Normans spoke French, but gradually the Anglo-Saxons and French created a new English culture
Thomas a Becket
archbishop of Canterbury and the highest-ranking English clergyman; murdered by knights of Henry II
Otto I
Saxon king of Germany; crowned emperor of the Romans in 962; led to the Holy Roman Empire that was really made up of many small, independent states in Germany and Italy
Paris
city in France; center of the Capetian dynasty of French kings
Phillip II Augustus
French king from 1180-1223 who expanded fought the English to gain the French territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine
Slavs
Originally a single people in central Europe, they divided into three main groups: Polish and Bohemian kingdoms in the west; Moravia in the east; Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians in the south
Alexander Nevsky
prince of Novgorod who defeated a German invading army in northwestern Russia in 1242; the Mongol ruler rewarded Nevsky with the title of grand-prince; Nevsky's descendants became princes of Moscow
Kiev
city in what is today Ukraine; settled by Viking leader Oleg in the early tenth century and became the Rus state known as the principality of Kiev
Constantinople
capital of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire
Justinian
emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire and ruled from 527 to 565; reestablished the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean during his reign; famous for codifying Roman law
Palestine
region in the eastern Mediterranean conquered by Justinian
Syria
region in the eastern Mediterranean conquered by Justinian
Balkans
region in southeastern Europe that includes Bulgaria and Serbia; conquered and settled by the Bulgars in 679
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
monk who enlisted King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany to join the Second Crusade, which was a total failure
Saladin
Muslim leader of Egypt who took the Holy City of Jerusalem in 1187; led to the Third Crusade, which failed; Saladin permitted Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
Pope Innocent III
initiated the Fourth Crusade from 1202-1204, which resulted in the Crusaders sacking Constantinople, a Christian city
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