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all measures taken to prevent infection or to break the chain of infection|2 types|medical - aims to reduce the number.transfer of pathogens|Surgical or sterile technique keeps areas and objects free of microorganisms
the single most important and basic preventive technique for interrupting the infectious process.|soap and water after eating, using the restroom , or visibally dirty. Warm water, keep fingertips below the hands. Wash a bar of soap first, wash up to an inch above the wrist,||if not visibly soiled you can use antiseptic hand rub, apply to palm and then rub into hands
An infection that was not present on admission to the hospital and develops during the course of treatment for other conditions (nosocomial)
clean technique involves procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens
precautions used in the care of all hospitalized individuals regardless of their diagnosis or possible infection status, blood, body fluids, secretions and excretions (except sweat) non intact skin and mucous membranes
precautions used in addition to Standard Precautions for patients in hospitals who are suspected of being infected with pathogens that can be transmitted by airborne,droplet, or contact routes.
standard precautions tier 1
hand hygiene techniques|clean nonsterile gloves when touching blood, body fluids, excretions, secretions, contaminated items, mucous membranes and nonintact skin. change gloves between tasks,
Most significant and most commonly observed infection-causing agents in healthcare institutions .
Cats are spherical , rod, spirochete , gram positive or gram negative
Destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores. Used when preparing the skin for a procedure or cleaning a piece of equipment that does not enter a sterile body part
Infection that occurs when the causative organism comes from microbial life harbored in the person
Disease state that results from the presence of pathogens in or on the body. Phases are incubation period, prod formal stage, full stage of illness,convalescent period
Infection occurs in cyclic process:
Portal of exit
Means of transmission
Portals of entry
Destroys all microogranisms including spores. Usually performed on equipment that is entering a sterile portion of the body
Sterile technique includes practices used to render and keep objects and areas from from microorganisms
Mosquitoes, ticks, lice are non human carriers that transmit organisms from one host to another
Smallest of all the microorganisms, visible only with electron microscope, source of many infections....cold, AIDS,
Potential to produce disease
Number of organisms, virulence, competence of person's immune system, length and intimacy of contact with microorganisms
Factors affecting risk for infection
Integrity of skin and mucous membranes
PH levels of GI and genitourinary tracts as well as skin
Integrity and number of WBC
Level of fatigue
Invasive or in dwelling medical devices
Neutrophils 60-70%. Acute infections with pus, increased risk if decreased numbers
Lymphocytes 20-40% chronic bacterial and viral infection
Monocytes 2-8% increased in severe infections and scavenger
Eosinophils 1-4%allergic reaction
Basophils .5-1% unaffected by infections
Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria normally found in nasal mucous membranes, on the skin, and in the respiratory and gi tract. Resistant to methicillin , new type is resistant to vancomycin (VRSA)
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