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respiratory rate

patient's breaths per minute |take after pulse so patient is unaware


all measures taken to prevent infection or to break the chain of infection|2 types|medical - aims to reduce the number.transfer of pathogens|Surgical or sterile technique keeps areas and objects free of microorganisms

hand hygiene

the single most important and basic preventive technique for interrupting the infectious process.|soap and water after eating, using the restroom , or visibally dirty. Warm water, keep fingertips below the hands. Wash a bar of soap first, wash up to an inch above the wrist,||if not visibly soiled you can use antiseptic hand rub, apply to palm and then rub into hands

healthcare-associated infection

An infection that was not present on admission to the hospital and develops during the course of treatment for other conditions (nosocomial)

medical asepsis

clean technique involves procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens

standard precautions

precautions used in the care of all hospitalized individuals regardless of their diagnosis or possible infection status, blood, body fluids, secretions and excretions (except sweat) non intact skin and mucous membranes

transmission-based precautions

precautions used in addition to Standard Precautions for patients in hospitals who are suspected of being infected with pathogens that can be transmitted by airborne,droplet, or contact routes.

standard precautions tier 1

hand hygiene techniques|clean nonsterile gloves when touching blood, body fluids, excretions, secretions, contaminated items, mucous membranes and nonintact skin. change gloves between tasks,


Bacteria that need oxygen to live and grow


Bacteria that can live without oxygen


Antigen-antibody reaction or humoral immunity


antibacterial ingredient


Most significant and most commonly observed infection-causing agents in healthcare institutions .
Cats are spherical , rod, spirochete , gram positive or gram negative


Destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores. Used when preparing the skin for a procedure or cleaning a piece of equipment that does not enter a sterile body part


Occurs with predictability in one specific region or population and can occur in a new area


Infection that occurs when the causative organism comes from microbial life harbored in the person


Causative organism comes from other people


Plant like organisms -molds and yeasts- present in air, soil, water.


Microorganisms exist only Ina source tha is acceptable and only overcome any resisitance hosts


Results from a treatment or diagnostic procedure


Disease state that results from the presence of pathogens in or on the body. Phases are incubation period, prod formal stage, full stage of illness,convalescent period
Infection occurs in cyclic process:
Infectious agent
Portal of exit
Means of transmission
Portals of entry
Susceptible host


Protective procedure that limits the spread of infectious diseases among hospitals


Specific term for something originating in a hospital


Disease producing microorganisms


Growth and multiplication of microorganisms in the natural habitat of the organism


Destroys all microogranisms including spores. Usually performed on equipment that is entering a sterile portion of the body

Surgical asepsis

Sterile technique includes practices used to render and keep objects and areas from from microorganisms


Mosquitoes, ticks, lice are non human carriers that transmit organisms from one host to another


Amount of microorganism it takes to over come host


Smallest of all the microorganisms, visible only with electron microscope, source of many infections....cold, AIDS,

Potential to produce disease

Number of organisms, virulence, competence of person's immune system, length and intimacy of contact with microorganisms

Factors affecting risk for infection

Integrity of skin and mucous membranes
PH levels of GI and genitourinary tracts as well as skin
Integrity and number of WBC
Level of fatigue
Stress level
Invasive or in dwelling medical devices

WBC levels

Neutrophils 60-70%. Acute infections with pus, increased risk if decreased numbers
Lymphocytes 20-40% chronic bacterial and viral infection
Monocytes 2-8% increased in severe infections and scavenger
Eosinophils 1-4%allergic reaction
Basophils .5-1% unaffected by infections


Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria normally found in nasal mucous membranes, on the skin, and in the respiratory and gi tract. Resistant to methicillin , new type is resistant to vancomycin (VRSA)


Enterococcus of streptococcus is normal in gi and female genital tracts can cause high mortality if resistant to vancomycin

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