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the particular position on homologous chromosome of a gene


having 2 identical alleles of a gene


having 2 different alleles of a gene


the alleles (genes) of an organism


the physical characteristics of an organism

dominant allele

an allele with same effect on phenotype whether it is present in homo or heterozygous state

recessive allele

an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in homozygous state

codominant allele

pair of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in heterozygote


an individual that has one copy of recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele

test cross

testing a suspect heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive

p generation

parent generate


offspring (filial)


offspring of f1, allowed to self fertilize

O blood group


A blood group


B blood group


AB blood group


X chromosome

relatively large; carries many genes
females have 2 copies, males have 1

Y chromosome

much smaller; carries only a few genes

Sex linked genes

genes located on X chromosome

gene linkage

combinations of genes tend to be inherited together because of their loci being close together on the same chromosome


the reassortment of genes or characteristics into different combinations from those of the parents

linkage groups

crossing over allows recombination of linked genes; all of the genes that have their loci on the same chromosome form a linkage group

polygenic inheritance

a single characteristic that is controlled by 2+ genes


number of possible genotypes there are for a polygenic character that is controlled by 2 genes each with 2 alleles

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