World War 1
Terms in this set (50)
Why was World War 1 significant for woman nurses?
It was the first time Army & Navy nurse corps were activated
When did Woodrow Wilson declare war?
April 2, 1917
What problems were posed with inequality in the war?
Nurses & women physicians did not receive military ranking & the same financial benefits their responsibilities justified
Who was General John J Pershing and what did he do?
He pushed for more than 200 women telephone operators to communicate with allied armies through the AEF
What did Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels ask?
Whether a yeoman (female) can be considered a man
Who is Jeanette Rankin and why is she significant?
She was the first women elected to Congress & the only member to vote against US involvement in both WWI and WWII
What are the 4 long-term causes of WW1
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system
France, Great Britain, and Russia were members of this alliance group in 1914
Germany, Ottoman Empire, Italy, Austria-Hungary were members of this alliance in 1914
The Central Powers
The "fuse" that sparked the war in Europe in 1914
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip on June 1914
Germany plan that called for a sweep through Belgium to conquer France, weakening Russia
What was the US two main reasons for joining the war?
1. Zimmerman Note
2. Germany's constant sinking of American ships (Lusitania)
Ship bombed by Germany on May 7, 1915 that contained 128 Americans
Germany proposed an alliance with Mexico, promising to support Mexico in recovering Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
Reason given to US Congress to go to war in April 1917
Make the world "safe for democracy"
How were African Americans involved in the war?
400,000 served, but most served in segregated units led by white officers
Who was Eddie Rickenbacker
A famous fighter pilot of WWI who won 134 air battles, competing with the Flying Circus, a German air squadron
Selective Service Act
passed in May 1917, required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service
How many men registered for the Selective Service Act and how many were called up?
24 million registered, 3 million called up
Major reason why Britain blockade Germany's ports during WWI
William S Sims convinced the British to use the convoy system to protect merchant ships, cutting total shipping losses in half
Another term for military draft
Heavy guard of navy escorted merchant ships back and forth across Atlantic
Nickname given to American troops during WW1
Official name of American troops during WW1
American Expeditionary Forces
When did Austria-Hungary surrender
November 3, 1918
Why did Germany surrender
Exhaustion & sailors declared mutiny by refusing to continue
When is Armistice Day
How many deaths during WW1
Economic cost of WW1
How much did the U.S. lose to WW1
How many months did the average military draftee train?
What did the Fuel Administration do?
Monitored coal supplies, rationed gasoline & heating oil, created "gasless Sunday's" and "lightless nights", adopted day lights-savings time
What did the Food Administration do?
Encouraged people to grow "victory gardens" to save mass produced foods for troops, created "meatless", "sweetless", "wheatless", and "porkless" days
How much did the U.S. spend on the war effort?
1/3 of the funding for WW1 came from...
An income tax
2/3 of the funding came from..:
public borrowing by selling with "war bonds"
Why were war bonds so important m
They helped produce American home spirit. Were sold in schools, streets, movies
Examples of anti-immigrant hysteria
• German books removed from libraries
• physical violence against German immigrants
• "hamburgers" became "victory meat"
• "Frankfurt" became "hot dogs"
• orchestras wouldn't play Beethovrn, Bach, Mozart
Espionage & Sedition Acts
A person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or saying anything disloyal to the war
The Great Migration
Large-scale movement of 100,000s of Southern blacks to cities in the North during WW1
How many Americans did the influenza virus kill in 1918
5 points of Wilson's Fourteen Points speech
1. There should be no secret treaties among nations
2. Freedom of the seas maintained for all
3. Tariffs lowered/abolished to foster free trade
4. Arms should be reduced
5. Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonial people's as well as the interests of the imperialist powers
Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemencaeu, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando
The 7 points of Treaty of Versailles
1. It established 9 new nations, Russia loses land
2. Carved 5 areas out of the Ottoman Empire
3. Barred Germany from maintaining an army
4. Required Getmany to return a region to France
5. Required Germany to pay $33 billion in reparations to the U.S.
6. Forced Germany to sign a war-guilt clause
7. Limitation on German Navy
Director of Food Administration
Why did the U.S. Senate not want to ratify the Treaty of Versailles
They believed they would lose the Constitutional right to declare war
What room was the Treaty of Versailles signed in a palace in France?
hall of mirrors of the palace of Versailles
When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
June 28, 1919
Henry Cabot Lodge
opposed the League of Nations
Legacy of WW1 in U.S.:
1. Strengthened both US military & government
2. Accelerated America's emergence as world's greatest industrial power
3. Contributed to movement of African-Americans to North
4. Brought over 1 million women into workforce
5. Russian, German, Ottoman, & Austria-Hungarian Empires ceased to exist
6. U.S. withdrew from world affairs