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53 terms

APUSH 1920's

STUDY
PLAY
red scare
fear of the new immigrants, from South Eastern Europe, and communism; partly a reaction to the Russian revolution
harding scandals
many of the people Harding put in office behaved corruptly and were put in jail later
Prohibition
the prevention by law of the manufacture and sale of alcohol between 1920 and 1933; wanted to eliminate drunkenness
The 'new woman'
flappers, rebellious, bold, energetic, smoked, cut their hair, but important things (economy, jobs, politics) didn't change
KKK
5 million members, held political power in several states, popularity expanded beyond the South, against everyone different than them (not just blacks)
tariffs and international trade
tariffs were raised to protect Americans from foreign competition, but this forced Europe to raise tariffs too, which made it harder for the US to trade internationally
restriction acts
(1921 and 1924) created to favor old immigrants over new immigrants; based the number of immigrants let into the country on number of people from that area already in the US; 1921 let in 3% based on a later census; 1924 let in 2% based on an earlier census
Scopes Trial
John Scopes was accused of purposely teaching evolution in a public school in Tennessee, which broke a state law; he was found guilty and fined
Leopold and Loeb Case
teenagers Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold were tried for murder; their lawyer Clarence Darrow pleaded for 12 hours against the death penalty; "one of the most eloquent attacks on the death penalty ever delivered in an American courtroom"; they were eventually sentenced to life in prison
Socco/Vanzetti Trial
Italian immigrants convicted of murder without solid evidence, mostly because they were anarchists
Movies
movie theaters were being created in many towns; many Americans frequently went to see movies; movie industry became big
Radio
large networks were developed that helped broadcast radio programs to multiple stations
Aimee Semple McPherson
fundamentalist; founded the Foursquare Church; pioneer in the use of modern media, especially the radio, for preaching
Andrew Mellon
secretary of the treasury, created large tax cuts for the wealthy; promoted wealthy inequality
Charles Lindbergh
made the first solo nonstop flight from Ney York to Paris; thought of as a hero and celebrity
Model T
Ford car; used the assembly line; massed produced, more available to the average person
Golden age of sports
Large crowds gathered to watch sporting events for the first time (baseball, boxing, golf, etc.)
Stock Market
stock prices increased in the early 20's; people bought shares in hopes of being able to sell them for an even higher price to other people and make a profit; people borrowed on "margin" to buy them, meaning they only had to pay a small amount of money and could borrow the rest; prices began to decline in September 1929; people rushed to sell their stocks on Black Thursday, Oct. 24; Big banks tried to save it, but couldn't; prices fell again on Black Tuesday
Themes
Disillusionment, prosperity, intolerance, conservatism, new morality, fundamentalism, materialism
disillusionment
condition or fact of being disenchanted
prosperity
being successful/prosperous
intolerance
not tolerant of others' views/beliefs
conservatism
The inclination to maintain the existing or traditional order
new morality
rapid social change
fundamentalism
set of religious beliefs including traditional Christian ideas about Jesus Christ; the belief that the Bible was inspired by God and is literally true
materialism
desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters
Palmer Raids
attempts by the US Department of Justice to arrest/deport anarchists; led by Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
1920 election
Harding vs. Cox, Harding won by a lot, statement about what the people thought about the outgoing Democratic president (Wilson); issues included the league of nations, strikes, race riots, etc.
1924 election
Coolidge (republican), Davis (democrat), La Follette (progressive); Coolidge won by a lot; he had been given credit for the great economy after Harding died; both Coolidge and Davis campaigned for limited government, reduced taxes and less regulation, while La Follette said the opposite
1928 election
Hoover (republican) vs. Smith (democrat); Coolidge chose not to run; Hoover won; republicans were associated with good economy; Smith received anti-catholic prejudice; Hoover won in a landslide
Ohio Gang
Harding appointed all his good friends, who ended up going behind his back and behaving corruptly
Teapot Dome
bribery incident while Harding was president
Albert Fall
leased Navy petroleum reserves to private oil companies without competitive bidding
Harry Sinclair
owner of Mammoth Oil, who the oil production rights were leased to; lease terms were favorable to the oil companies
Charles Forbes
appointed the first Director of the Veteran's Bureau by Harding; he was a favorite of Harding's; convicted of conspiracy to defraud the US government and sent to jail
Gangsterism
the selling alcohol went to the black market; became a way for gangs to make money that was then used for criminal behavior
Speakeasy
illegal liquor store or bar
19th amendment
gave women the right to vote, but little changed for them politically or economically; even though they could vote, many didn't
Talkies
movie with sound
Jazz Singer
first talkie feature film presented; marked the decline of silent films and incline of talkies
KDKA/Pittsburgh
one of the first modern radio stations; featured musical performances and live broadcasts
Frank Lloyd Wright
architect, interior designer, writer and educator
farm economy
not very prosperous to begin with; prices for crops kept going down, but living and working costs for farmers remained the same; many went into debt
Great Migration
lots of blacks moved out of the South to the Northeast, Midwest, and West, hoping to find better jobs and opportunities
Harlem Renaissance
"New Negro Movement"; New York; influenced black writers, musicians and artists
Langston Hughes
writer/poet and social activist; jazz poetry; tried to depict the real life of blacks in his work; criticized the divisions and prejudices based on skin color
Jazz
spread from New Orleans to Chicago, New York and other cities; was a way for blacks to present themselves as successful to whites; "new negro"
WEB DuBois
integration into white society, NAACP and Urban League wanted to improve the image of the African American
Marcus Garvey
separatist, good at speaking in front of people, wanted to build a strong black community, "Africa for Africans"
o UNIA: Universal Negro Improvement Association
critics/supporters of prohibition
conservatives were in favor because they thought younger people were straying from tradition; materialists/younger people were against it
Billy Sunday
fundamentalist, preacher
Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis
satire of American culture, society and behavior; criticizes middle-class America and conformity
the Lost Generation
phrase made known by Hemingway; directed towards the generation who were a part of WWI; authors included themselves in this, including Hemmingway, Fitzgerald, etc.