35 terms

PSY 101 Chapter 1

Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
Mary Whiton Calkins.
To determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of
correlational research.
Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
social psychology.
Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
The study of psychology is potentially dangerous because
psychological knowledge can be used for destructive purposes.
Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a
If research participants given an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits experience pain relief, this illustrates
the placebo effect.
Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions.
In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.
In answering multiple-choice test items, smart test-takers are best advised to
recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers.
Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.
After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin's conclusion best illustrates the danger of
generalizing from vivid cases.
Which perspective studies the relative contributions of our genes and our environment on our individual differences?
behavior genetics
Clinical psychologists specialize in
providing therapy to troubled people.
Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, when offered a better job in another state, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates
To learn about the TV-viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school's students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)
Which research method assesses how well one variable predicts another without specifying a cause and effect relationship between the variables?
the correlational method.
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
William James.
Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?
In 1879, who established this first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany? (He was the first psychologist and was a middle-aged professor)
Wilhelm Wundt.
Who was the first woman to recieve a psychology Ph.D. (in 1921)?
Margaret Flow Washburn.
He was an Austrian physician and developed an influential theory of personality.
Sigmund Freud.
These two psychologists championed psychology as the science of behavior. They demonstrated on "Little Albert."
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner.
This school of thought emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.
Humanistic psychology.
This school of thought was rooted in B.F. Skinner's redefinition that psychology is "the scientific study of observable behavior."
In psychology's early days, what school of thought focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings? Up until the 1920s, this is when psychology was defines as "the science of mental life."
What is the study of brain activity linked with mental activity?
Cognitive neuroscience.
Today we define psychology as ______.
the science of behavior and mental processes.
Unpacking today's psychology definition, Behavior is ______.
anything an organism does.
Unpacking today's psychology definition, mental processes are _________.
subjective experiences: sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.
This is the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience to the development of our traits and behaviors.
Nature-nurture issue.
Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
These psychologists help people with challenges and crisis.
Counseling Psychologists
These psychologists asses and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders.
Clinical Psychologists