A psychologist examines several situations involving the responses of bystanders in a crowd to emergency situations. She hypothesizes that the larger the crowd, the less likely an individual is to respond to an emergency. This type of thinking is__________________________.
Joanna discovers that she has called her boyfriend's phone number instead of her mother's as she intended. Her error can be attributed to_____________________.
______________________________is the tendency to overestimate one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known.
The average IQ score used today is arbitrarily set at:
The average IQ score used today is arbitrarily set at: 100
Ralph believes his pet bird is harboring hostile feelings towards him for changing his pet food company. Ralph's tendency to project his own human interpretation of his pet's behavior may be defined as _______________________.
The process of comparing and evaluating opposing points of view to resolve differences is known as________________________.
_____________________is a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem solving but does not guarantee an optimal solution.
The tendency to think that human beings have nothing in common with other animals is referred to as________________________.
The ________________________approach to intelligence focuses on how well people perform on standardized aptitude tests designed to measure the ability to acquire skills and knowledge.
An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world is known as a______________________________.
______________________is a state of tension that occurs when a person's belief contradicts his or her behavior .
In the theory of cognitive dissonance, tension that occurs when you believe you may have made a bad decision is referred to as__________________________.
Joanne is 70 years old and is about to take an IQ test. She is worried because she knows that older people are assumed to have diminished mental abilities. Joanne is being affected by_________________.
________________________is the study of animal intelligence.
A system of beliefs about the way one's own mind and the minds of others work and of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings is referred to as____________________.
theory of mind
In reconstructing your memories of events, you draw information from many sources, including stories and pictures. You may even draw on other people's accounts of their own events or similar events you've seen on television. The inability to distinguish an actual memory from information you have obtained elsewhere is a phenomenon known as _______________.
An eight-year-old boy is behaving aggressively by hitting classmates and disobeying his teacher. According to the Jungian Theory of personality, which archetype is he expressing?
his Shadow archetype
When you are cooking your favorite meal, ensuring that all the correct ingredients are included and adding just the right amount of spices for flavoring, you are using _____________.
During Piaget's preoperational stage of development, a child cannot take another person's point of view because a child's thinking is ___________.
The process in which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed is called _______________.
The Three-Box Model of Memory included which of the following?
The Sensory Register, Short-Term Memory, and Long-Term Memory
Fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt are considered to be basic emotions also known as ____________ emotions
The small structure in the brain that plays a key role in scrutinizing incoming information for its emotional importance is known as the ______________.
The hormone ______________ promotes sexual desire in both males and females.
An expectation that comes true because the person behaves in ways that make the expectation come true is known as a ___________________ prophecy.
In Freud's psychosexual stages of personality, during the phallic stage, a child who desires the parent of the opposite sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival is said to be going through the ___________________.
Three-year-old Tommy thinks that if he changed from wearing pants to wearing dresses he could become a girl. Tommy still lacks a stable ___________________.
Trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, identity versus role confusion, and generatively versus stagnation are all stages of the developmental theory proposed by psychoanalyst __________________________
Explain the pros and cons of defense mechanisms.
The cons of Defense mechanisms is, they will either deny or distort reality when a person feels anxious or threatened when the wishes of the id conflict with social rules. They become unhealthy only when they cause self-defeating behavior and emotional problems. The pros are, they will protect us from conflict and anxiety. (Wade, Travis 484)
The _________________ is the standard reference manual used to diagnose mental disorders.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
____________ tests consist of ambiguous pictures, sentences, or stories that the test taker interprets or completes.
______________ tests have better reliability and validity.
Objective Tests (inventory)
A person who perceives everything as an opportunity for disaster is likely to suffer from a(n) _______________ disorder.
Generalized anxiety disorder
The most disabling form of social phobia is ______________. The biggest fear for a person with this phobia is being trapped in a crowded public place where escape might be difficult. Being away from a safe place, usually the home, is frightening.
A soldier who continues to relive events of the war years after returning from fighting is like to be diagnosed with _______________.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
A person who alternates between feelings of depression and mania may suffer from __________ disorder
Specific, negative ways of thinking that contribute to depression are known as ______________.
A person with schizophrenia reports that he is hearing voices; the symptom he is experiencing is called a ________________.
A person who begins to tremble, shake, and have chest pains and shortness of breath at the sight of a spider or other insect may have some type of ______________.
A person who has an exaggerated sense of his/her own importance is said to suffer from _______________ personality disorder.
What is the definition of a mental disorder?
Any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the person's ability to work or get along with others, or endangers others or the community. (Wade, Tavris 599)
What is the definition of insanity?
In legal terms, it's whether a person is aware of the consequences of his or her actions and can control his or her behavior. (Wade, Tavris 598)
The most common biological treatment for mental disorders includes which of the following?
A workers' union strike to force a company to raise wages and improve health care benefits is an example of
A sense of control where people try to accommodate to a bad situation by changing their own aspirations or desires is called:
Which emotion may be most hazardous to your heart?
Thorazine, Haldol, Clozaril, Risperdal, and Zyprexa are _____________.
older medications used for the treatment of mental disorders
Exposure, flooding, systematic desensitization, and skills training are all elements of which form of psychotherapy?
According to Hans Selye, general adaptation syndrome occurs in three sequential phases, the order of which is:
alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
Researchers believe that many psychoses are caused by an excess amount of which neurotransmitter?
Margaret is not prepared to take her psychology final exam. As she enters the classroom, she begins to feel her heart race; she starts to sweat; her muscles tense up, and she begins to feel nauseous. Margaret is most likely experiencing the ___________________phase of general adaptation syndrome.
A woman suffering from depression is given a new medication by her doctor, who claims that the medication will immediately improve her mood. She finds that after taking the medication she does begin to feel calmer and happier; however, after a week of taking the medication she find that her symptoms of depression have returned and the new medication no longer has any affect on her. The woman experienced which of the following?
The ___________________phase of the general adaptation syndrome is when persistent stress depletes the body of energy, increasing vulnerability to physical problems.
______________________refers to your general expectation about whether you can control the things that happen to you.
Locus of Control
___________________control is typically exercised by Western cultures in which people try to influence events by exerting direct control over them.
The Eastern approach of accepting reality by changing your own attitudes and goals emphasizes ______________control and a "learn to live with it" philosophy.
A form of psychotherapy in which a therapist's primary goal is for a client to achieve insight into his or her unconscious motives and feelings is _________________.