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83 terms

Chapter 2 Computer

STUDY
PLAY
peripheral device
designates input, output, and storage equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality
system unit
is the case that holds the computers main circuit boards, microprocessor, memory, power supply, and storage devices.
form factor
refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit
tower case
provides plenty of space for gamers and modders who want to soup up their machines.
mini case
popular with gamers can be carried to LAN parties
Portable computer
small lightweight personal computer with screen keyboard.
notebook computer
small lightwieght computer that opens like a clamshell.
netbook
small scaled sizr versions of the clamsized computers
tablet computer
is a portable computing device featuring a touch sensitive screen that can be used as a writing ot drawing pad.
home computer system
encompasses a vast array of computer configurations designed to accomodate consumers who use computers for personal tasks.
PC platform
is based on the design for one of the first personal computer superstars- IBM PC
Mac platform
is based on a proprietory design for a personal computer called MAC
Linux platform
can use a standard PC or Mac running the Linux operating system
mod
custom hand built modification to a computer system component.
microprocessor clock
a timing device that sets the pace for executing instructions
Gigahertz
means a billion cycles per second
multicoreprocessor
a single micro processor that contains circuitry for more than one processing unit is this
FSB
stands for front side bus
Megahertz
means one million cycles per second
CPU cache
is a special high speed mempory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than ever from memory located elswhere.
Word size
refers to the number of bits that a microprocessor can manipulate at one time.
64 bit processor
has 64 bits at a time
CISC
a microprocessor with such an instruction set uses this
RISC
a microprocessor with a limited set of instructions
serial processing
the processor must complete all steps in the instruction cycle before it begins to execute the next instruction
pipelining
a processor can begin executing an instruction before it completes the previous instruction
parallel processing
in which multiple instructions are executed at the same time
benchmarks
these are tests to gauge the overall speed of a microprocessor
Overlocking
is a technique for increasing the speed of a computer such as a processor, graphics card, system board or memory.
RAM
is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructionsand the operating system.
capacitators
they hold the bits that represent data
volatile
means it requires electrical power to hold data
virtual memory
operating system uses an area of the hard disk to store parts of programs or data files until they are needed.
ROM
is a type of memory circuitory that hods the computers start up routine.
EEPROM
non volatile chip that requires no power to hold data
storage medium
is the disk, tape, CD, DVD, or other substance that contains data.
storage device
is the mechanical apparatus that records and retrieves data from a storage medium
Access time
is the average time it takes a computer to locate data on the storage medium and read it.
Random Access
is the ability of a device to "jump directly to the requested data.
Data transfer rate
is the amount of data a storage device can move per second from the storge medium to the computer.
storage density
the amount of data that can be stored in a given area of a storage medium, such as the surface of a disk.
magnetic storage
hard disk, floppy disk, and tape storage technologies classified as this.
read-write head
mechanism in the disk drive can magnetize particles to write data, and sense the particles polarities to read data.
hard disk drive
contains one or more platters and their associated read-write heads.
hard disk platter
is a flat, rigid disk made of aluminum or glass and coated with magnetic iron oxide particles.
hard disk controller
positions the disk, locates data, and interface with components on the system board.
head crash
if a readwrite head runs into a dust particle or other contaminent on the disk it cause this.
optical storage
CD, DVD, and Blue - Ray technologies are classified as this
pits
the dark spots are known as this
lands
the lighter- non pitted surface areas of the disk are called this
Read - only technology
stores data permanently on a disk, which cannot be subsequently added or changed
Recordable technology
uses a laser to change the color in a dye layer sandwiched beneath the clear plastic disk surface.
Rewritable technology
uses phase change technology to alter a crystal structure on the disk surface.
CDDA
more commonly known as audio, is the format for commercial musice CDS.
CD_ROM
Data cannot be added to changed or deleted from this
DVD-Rom
Data cannot be changed from this
CD-R
disks stor data using recordable technology
DVD-R
discs store data using a recordable technology similar to a CD-R but with a DVD storage capacity
CD-RW
discs store data using rewritable technology
DVD+RW
discs use rewritable technology technology similar to CD-RW but with DVD storage capacity
BD-ROM
is used for movies. Blue- Ray
Solid state storage
is a technology that stores data in eraseable, rewritable circuitry, rather than on spinning disks or streaming tape.
non-volatile
the chip retains the data without the need for an external power source
card reader
is a device that reads and writes data on solid state storage.
solid state storage
can be used as a substitute for a hard disk drive in handheld devices and netbooks
solid state drive
can be used as a substitute for a hard disk drive in handheld devices and netbooks.
USB flash drive
is typically used for storing data files and programs that you want to use on various computers
dot matrix printer
produces characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires
printers duty cycle
determines how many pages a printer is able to churn out
duplex printer
can print on both sides of the paper
data bus
within a computer, data travels from one component to another over circiuts called
expansion slot
long narrow socket on the system board into which you can plug an expansion card
expansion card
small circuit board that gives a computer the capability to hold a storage device, input device, output device.
expansion port
is any connector that passes data into and out of a computer or peripheal device.
Fire Wire ports
are used for external storage devices and for transferring data from digital video cameras to a computer for editing, printing, or storage
eSata
popular for connecting high-speed external storage devices.
VGA, DVI, HDMI
ports are designed for audiovisual devices.
hot- plugging
when you connect or disconnect a peripheral device while the computer is operating
power surge
is a sudden increase in electrical energy affecting the current that flows to electrical outlets
surge strip
is a device that contains electrical outlets protected by circuitory that blocks surges
UPS
is a device that not only provides surge protection, but also furnishes desktop computers and network devices with battery backup power during a power outage
blue screen of death
a sign that your computer is not working properly, and that which it cannot recover
Safe Mode
is a limited version of Windows that allows you to lose your mouse, screen, and keyboard, but no other periphereal devices.