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Terms in this set (127)
Prussian monarchy and the collection of kingdoms changed to a German Empire under Kaiser and then later into Germany
Berlin was the capital of the authoritarian, organized Prussian monarchy and collection
German Empire from Prussia
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Last German Emperor; dismissed Bismarck; allied with Austria Hungary in the "3rd Balkan War"
Was dual monarch; nephew was Franz Ferdinand
"Sick heart of Europe"
Tsar Nicholas II
Lost to Japan in Russo-Japanese War
One of the five world powers
Taken from France by Germany
Germany doesn't really care
France is deeply upset by it
Austria-Hungary and Germany
Ensured Germany fought a two-front war
Britain was splendidly isolated away from continental Europe
Invalid after Boer Wars
Entente Cordiale 1904
French and British Alliance between the Dual Alliance
Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy
Germany's jab at Russia and France
Before attacking Russia, Germany took a lap and plowed through France
Britain declared war on Germany
Austrian chancellor who was the architect of the balance of powers system; wasn't very fair or democratic; doesn't really apply to late 20th Century
Congress of Vienna
Idea of Long Peace
attempt to democracy in Germany and Austria and it was in the German states, 39, smashed by the aristocrats and undemocratic types
CHALLENGED BY WILSON; Idealism; WWI happened because of this, we need 14 points
Balance of Power
How things were run in a lot of the nation-states
Black Hand terrorist who killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Bosnian Crisis 1908
Annexation by AH of Bosnia-Herzegovia
Congress of Berlin gave it to AH but it was a part of the Ottoman Empire
Balkan Wars 1912-13
Turks vs Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece
Get Turks out of Europe
Princip - Bosnian Serb
State sponsored terrorist
AH heir to the throne, assassinated
Sarajevo June 28, 1839
Date of Ferdinand's assassination
Austrian Ultimatum July 23
Either you let us investigate or we go to war, basically a declaration of war
Austrian - Serbian War July 28
War broke out because Serbia, obviously, wasn't going to allow the investigation
German Blank Check
Germany told AH they would support no matter what
Germany, AH, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria
put the Schlieffen Plan in trouble
basically a declaration of war against Germany and Austria Hungary
Treaty of London - 1915, Italy joins
Sneaky deal with Britain and France assuring that Italy will get a part of Austria Hungary if they become an ally
Arabian expert, so to speak
ruined potential borders
Lawrence of Arabia
Worked with Gertrude Bell to establish Iraq
Sykes - Piest Agreement
British and French diplomat about dividing middle east; Syria and Lebanon to France and Iraq and Jordan to British; OIL is becoming a thing; Suez canal; Eastern Mediterranean control; INDIA
Jews could have their state
French stopped Sc.Plan in 1914 and saved France
Modern Industrial War
evolution of weaponry
Germany bled French white; Early 1916; most lives lost, lasted a very long time
France and Britain against Germany
1.5 million dead between 7/1 and 11/1/1916
20,000 British dead in one day
Woodrow Wilson; 14 points; idealist
Civilians and neutrals involved; German attacked the ship
USA gets involved now
Germany would attack anyone
Anything could be of value to GB
Germany tried to stir trouble in Mexico
Lenin was in favor of jumping straight into communism
Created chaos, not just to riot, he wanted revolution
He had an ideology driving it
Group founded by Lenin
Working class of Russia
considered themselves the revolutionary working class of Russia
Lenin's call to Bolsheviks to host a revolution
creates Soviet Russia
Peace Treaty between Bolsheviks of Soviet Russia and Central Powers
Sneaky because Lenin only wanted short term peace
Meant Germany was fighting only one front
Russian Civil War
Red vs. White (monarchy and capitalism)
Polish - Soviet War 1919-21
Soviet aim to make Poland red; saw Poland's a stepping stone
Lenin's New Diplomacy
Spread communism worldwide
Wilson's New Diplomacy
spread democracy worldwide
rules by Wilson to fix
League of Nations
collection of nations; US didn't want to get into it however
Great War Armistice
Its a draw, a tie
Germany never felt defeated though
Not a surrender, just an end
Germany thought they won
Reichtag signed the GWA and it was seen as anti-german, communist, and against the Kaiser and monarchy
Elites hate Hitler because he was lower-class
Sevres terminated Ottoman Empire but was deemed invalid by Turks
Lausanne modified it and established borders in the East better
not really established in the east
French Security System
Ally self w/Eastern Europe - winners
France is setting itself up for a two front war again
Group of countries France allied with for their security system
Romania, yugoslavia, czechoslovakia
European States System
New actors: US and Japan
Destruction of states
in a weird status between the two wars
new polish border
Treaty of Riga - 1921 USSR vs. Poland
Ended Polish-Soviet War
Hot spot for bad Polish and Czechoslovakian relations
WWII could have been different and Poland wouldn't have been obliterated if they didn't take Teschen from C
separated Germany from the rest of Prussia and connected Poland to Prussia
Bulgarian effort to get parts of Macedonia back
fascism; far right
Treaty of London
Italy joins triple entente and leaves alliance
Wilson and League
US not in it because of an article in the L o N that binds members to get involved in war if it erupts and Europe was at risk to go into war again
Threat to Europe
Soviets and Germany
Poland's worst nightmare
Alliance counterbalanced France and GB
S and G weren't allowed in League of Nations
Ruhr Invasion 1923
Money was worthless
Beer Hall Putsch
tries to take over Munich government
Hitler is a traitor but he goes to jail for only 9 months
writes Mein Kampf
Hitler goes for votes and isn't taken seriously until Depression
Building a huge trench by French between France and Germany
acknowledged Germany could only get worse if it were to stay under the same rules of the Versailles treaty, there has to be another way
Dawes 1924 and Young Plan 1929
American economists' plans to maintain some sort of global balance
Define French and German border
Eastern borders for Europe are still up for interpretation
Spirit of Locarno
Germany becomes a part of the League of Nations
outlawed war; 1928; wasn't ideal at that time, but applicable today
Too much production
Problem, GOVERNMENT TIGHTENED THEIR BELTS
But the belt is already tight and no one has money
German-Polish Nazi Aggression
Anglo-German Naval Pact
What were the great powers of Europe in 1990? What political and diplomatic challenges faced each one?
Why did the one-time bitter enemies France and Russia create an alliance in 1894 and with Britain the Triple Entente by 1907? What was the German strategy to deal with the Franco-Russian alliance, and what impact did this have on WWI in 1914?
What was the character of the European states system in 1890? Who are remembered as the great statesmen of the nineteenth century, and what are some of the myths about the system they created? How did perceptions about the 19th-century European states system influence 20th century diplomacy?
Who fought the two Balkan Wars in 1912-1913, and why? Why might the Great War be called the Third Balkan War? Of what significance do these wars have for the twentieth century?
What did Princip want? and what significance does he have to Serbian history? According to Remak, how important was the assassination of the Archduke in 1914 to the eventual outbreak of war between the Entente and the Central Powers, and to the eventual dissolution of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires? In other words, would they have collapsed anyway? What are the implications of Remak's ideas for the study of diplomatic history?
How did a local war between Austria and Serbia become a worldwide conflict? Which countries fought on the side of the Central Powers, and why? Which countries eventually fought for the Entente, and why?
What was Europe's attitude toward the war in 1914? How was the Great War fought? Why did this war shock Europeans?
Why did the US enter the war in April 1917? What impact did the US entry have on the war?
Why did Russia undergo two revolutions in 1917? What impact did the Bolshevik revolution have on the war and the peace that followed? What was Lenin's "New Diplomacy"? What was Wilson's "New Diplomacy"?
What were Wilson's Fourteen Points, and why are they significant for US foreign policy in the 20th century?
Why did the Great War end on November 11, 1918? Why was it an ambiguous armistice, especially for Germany? Why was it a problem for the long-term stability of the interwar peace?
What were the aims of the participant at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919? Which of Wilson's Fourteen Points were compromised at the conference, and why? What were the terms of the treaties for the losers? How were the new borders of Europe determined? Which were the most controversial? Why?
How did the European states system change after 1918? Was it an inherently unstable and weak system? What was the French security system and why was it so weak?
What were some of the first indications that the Paris Peace Settlement would be difficult to enforce? What countries were unhappy with the Versailles system after WWI, and why? What latitude was Germany given to meet its obligations and why?
What was Stesemann's policy to deal with the Versailles Treaty? What were his justification for that policy? Was there any chance for the long term survival of the "spirit of Locarno"?
How have many historians criticized the Paris Peace Settlement, and especially the Treaty of Versailles? What are some of the myths regarding the Versailles Treaty? Was Hitler's takeover of the Weimar Republic in 1933 and WWII an inevitable outcome of the Versailles Treaty?
What economic and diplomatic developments from 1929 to the end of 1936 threatened the entire Versailles system? What was Mussolini's reaction to the Nazi assassination of the Austrian prime minister in 1934? Why did he ally with Germany in 1936?
What was the French and British policy toward Italy in the mid-thirties? Why didn't the French and British take stronger stands against Italy and Germany in 1935, and then did nothing when Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in 1936? What was the significance of the Anglo-German Naval Pact and the remilitarization of the Rhineland?
Why did Italy and Germany aid Franco in the Spanish Civil War, and why were France and Britain reluctant to get involved? Why did the Soviet Union aid the Spanish government? What is the significance of the Spanish Civil War for Spain and for Europe?
What were Hitler's outlines for war in the meeting recorded by Hossbach in November 1937? What does Taylor say was the significance of Hitler's plans that he laid out at the meeting? What are the implications of Taylor's interpretation of Hitler's foreign policy?
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