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Neuroscience Quiz 2
Terms in this set (98)
Movement of neurons from the ventricular zone outward
Development of neurons into different types by the expression of genes appropriate for the neuron's regional location
Division of neural precusor cells into neurons
Extension of axons and dentrites from the soma
Formation of new synapses
Folding of the neural plate into neural groove and formation of the neural crest
Refining synaptic connections by removing selected innervation from competing neurons
Chemically directing the developing axon away from a region
The specialized regions of neural communication where one neuron connects to another is called a
"By entering the numbers 1-4 in the spaces provided, number the following steps of neuronal development in the order that they occur:
-Development of neurons into the type of cells appropriate for their location
-Extension of axons and dendrites from the soma to form synapses
-Movement of neurons to their target location
-Formation and division of neural stem cells"
The space between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons is called the
After an action potential has propagated along an axon to reach the axon terminal, the change in membrane potential causes an inward current flow of ____________ that then facilitate (help) transmitter-filled synaptic vessicles to bind to the membrane of the axon terminal and release their contents into the synaptic cleft.
Ca++ (calcium) ions
Ion channels that open or close in response to changes in membrane potential are called [x1]-gated ion channels, and ion channels that open or close in response to binding of a molecule or chemical (e.g. neurotransmitters) are called [x2]-gated ion channels.
"Specified Answer for: x1 voltage
Specified Answer for: x2 ligand
Two synapses at different parts of the same neuron are activated together. They both undergo long-term potentiation
State (activity) dependent
The postsynaptic membrane is depolarized when it received input. Strong synaptic potentiation occurs.
One synapse is active while another synapse on the same neuron is not. LTP will only occur at the synapse that is active.
Since the postsynaptic membrane needs to be depolarized for plasticity to occur, several presynaptic neurons with synapses on that postsynaptic neuron can each produce "subthreshold" EPSPs or IPSPs that, in the postsynaptic neuron, add together to sufficiently depolarize the postsynaptic membrane for plasticity to occur at the active synapses.
What is true about NMDA receptors?
-They require the binding of a neurotransmitter to open the channel
-They require sufficient depolarization of the membrane potential to allow calcium ions to flow through
-They are glutamate receptors
-They sometimes work together with AMPA channels on a postsynaptic membrane to facilitate synaptic plasticity
The release of neurotransmitter from an axon terminal could be inhibited or blocked by an axo-axonic synapse and a processes called ___________, while the release of neurotransmitter from an axon terminal could be increased or amplified by an axo-axonic synapse and a processes called ____________.
presynaptic inhibition/ presynaptic facilitation
A meningomyelocele, which results in abnormal growth of the spinal cord and usually causes impairment of lower extremity function and bowel/bladder control, contains what?
-Subarachnoid space containing CSF
-Neural tissue, i.e. displaced spinal cord
A synapse that utilizes the release and binding of neurotransmitters for transmission of neuronal signals is a(n)
Match the stages of neuronal development in the order that they occur (stages 1-4):
How do neurons communicate?
Neurotransmitters are _______________, sodium currents are caused by the movement of ______________, and propagating action potentials are ___________.
molecules / ions / electrical changes in membrane voltage
Number the events of synaptic transmission in the order that they occur.
An action potential is generated in the presynaptic neuron and propagates down the axon to the presynaptic axon terminal
Voltage gated calcium channels in the axon terminal open in response to depolarization of the presynapic axon terminal membrane
Calcium flows into the axon terminal through voltage-gated calcium channels
Calcium causes vesicles filled with neurotransmitter to fuse with the presynaptic membrane
Neurotransmitter is released from the synaptic vessicles into the synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitter binds to postsynaptic receptors
Postsynaptic channels open or close
Postsynaptic currents cause excitatory or inhibitory changes in the postsynaptic membrane potential
Postsynaptic EPSPs and IPSPs from all synapses add together, and if the membrane potential at the axon hillock exceeds the threshold, an action potential is generated in the postsynaptic neuron
Removal of neurotransmitter from cleft:
Neurotransmitter is removed from the synaptic cleft by being broken down by enzymes or taken back up into the axon terminal (reuptake)
A failure of the anterior end of the neural tube to close can cause [x1]. A failure of the posterior end of the neural tube to completely close can cause [x2].
Specified Answer for: x1 anencephaly
Specified Answer for: x2 spina bifida
"Fire it to wire it"
A synapse is strengthened by repeated activation.
"Neurons that fire together wire together"
When neurons in a circuit are activated at the same time, they will form strong synaptic connections.
"Use it or lose it"
If synaptic connections between neurons (or neurons and muscle fibers, or neurons and glands) are not activated regularly, the unused connections will be pruned (degraded and removed).
Which neurodevelopmental events generally continue into adolescence and/or adulthood?"
Prefrontal cortex structural and neurochemical development
The post-synaptic effect of neurotransmission (excitatory, inhibitory, modulation) depends on:
-the type of transmitter released from the pre-synaptic cell
-the type of post-synaptic recepter the neurotransmitter binds to
(Choose the BEST answer) In relation to the synapse, the neuron secreting the transmitter is the ________ cell, while the neuron receiving the neurotransmitter is the _______ cell.
Axons of developing neurons are directed to their targets by..."
A post-synaptic cell may receive many inhibitory and excitatory inputs. These inputs add together in the post-synaptic cell. When signals arrive from several synaptic sites at the same time, for example-- from several neurons onto one neuron, this addition is called [x1] summation. When the presynaptic signals are sent in quick succession, for example-- from repeated action potentials from one neuron to another, this input adds together by [x2] summation.
Specified Answer for: x1 spatial
Specified Answer for: x2 temporal
Becomes skeletal muscle
Antero-medial part of the somite
Another term for the group of muscles innervated by a spinal nerve segment
Lateral part of the somite
Another term for the area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve
Becomes vertebrae and skull bones
Postero-medial part of the somite
Becomes the dermis
Becomes the midbrain in the adult
Associated with the central canal in the adult CNS
Becomes the cerebral cortex in the adult brain
Surrounds the cerebral aqueduct in the adult brain
Refers to hindbrain structures (cerebellum, pons, medulla) in the adult brain
Comprises the forebrain and diencephalon
Becomes the cerebellum in the adult
Associated with the third ventricle in the adult
Becomes the medulla in the adult
Associated with the lateral ventricles in the adult
The non-myelinated segments of an axon where voltage-gated sodium channels are concentrated are called [x1]
Specified Answer for: x1 Node of Ranvier
IPSP or EPSP?
Generally provides hyperpolaization of the postsynaptic membrane potential
IPSP or EPSP?
Can be caused by an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC)
IPSP or EPSP?
Generally provides depolaization of the postsynaptic membrane potential
IPSP or EPSP?
Decreases the probability of producing and action potential in the postsynaptic cell
IPSP or EPSP?
Can be caused by an inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC)
IPSP or EPSP?
Can be caused by the binding of glutamate to a postsynaptic ionotropic receptor
IPSP or EPSP?
Increases the probability of producing and action potential in the postsynaptic cell
IPSP or EPSP?
Can be caused by the binding of GABA or glycine to a postsynaptic ionotropic receptor
Binding of a neurotransmitter to a metabotropic receptor can cause....
-Activation of intracellular signaling cascades
-Inhibitory or excitatory effects depending on the type of effectors (molecular targets) that are present in the cell
-Amplification of a signal by activation of many effectors
-Inhibitory or excitatory effects depending on the type of receptor and type of G-protein attached to that receptor
-Activation of G-proteins
Identify the neurotransmitter Implicated in deficits seen in Parkinson's Disease
What neurotransmitter Activates adrenergic receptors
What neurotransmitter is a common target for anti-depression and anti-anxiety medications (such as SSRIs)
What neurotransmitter is involved in motivation, reward, and reinforcement
What neurotransmitter is Involved in emotion regulation as well as sleep, wakefulness and motor behaviors
What neurotransmitter is Involved in arousal and attention in the CNS, and allergic reactions within the body
What neurotransmitter is Involved in attention and feeding as well as sleep, wakefulness, and spinal motor control
Primary neurotransmitter in the PNS and at the neuromuscular junction
True or False: Neural pathways in the brain are "hard-wired" from birth and cannot be changed by experience, internal/external environment, disease, or injury.
What is true about neuromodulation?
-It changes the efficacy of synaptic input
-It can be produced by binding at metabotropic receptors
-The response depends on the type of neuromodulator and the type of receptor it binds to
What is the function of the hippocampus and where is it located?
-Necessary for the formation of new memories
-Located in the temporal lobe
Action potential propagation along an axon that "jumps" from node to node is called [x1] conduction.
The process by which neuronal circuits become less responsive with repeated stimuli is called [x1], while the process by which neuronal circuites can become more responsive by pairing of stimuli is called [x2].
Specified Answer for: x1 habituation
Specified Answer for: x2 sensitization
In general, synaptic transmission via ionotropic receptors is _________ synaptic transmission via metabotropic receptors.
Metabotropic receptors have what kind of ion channels?
metabotropic receptors do not have ion channels
What cellular mechanisms leads to the longest lasting synaptic plasticity?
Changes in gene expression to change the physical structure of the synapse
Where are action potentials generated?
What is "frequency coding?"
Describes how neurons represent the amount (amplitude) of input it receives
The speed of action potential propagation along an axon can be increased by:
-Myelination of the axon
-Increasing the diameter of the axon
Which neurotransmitters are known to bind to both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors?
Order these cellular changes for synaptic plasticity from the shortest lasting (persists from milliseconds to seconds) to longest lasting (persists from hours to days to weeks...).
Changes in the number of synaptic vessicles ready to be released, released, or the duration of time that they are released
Changes in the number of postsynaptic receptors in the membrane at the synapse
Changes in gene expression causing the creation of additional synapses, such as more from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron
What are features of neuroplasticity?
-forming new connections between neurons
-regeneration or degeneration of the nervous system after disease or injury
-removing unused connections between neurons
-modifying connections between neurons based on experiences or cognitive "work" such as thinking
-creating, shaping, molding, or adapting neural circuits and connections
What substance is released by postsynaptic targets (e.g. other neurons, muscle fibers, etc) to help to maintain synaptic connections with pre-synaptic axons?
Fine, "finger-like" processes extending from the sheet-like expansion at the tip of the growing neuronal process
Structure at the tip of a developing axon or dendrite that explores the extracellular environment
Sheet-like structure that expands at the tip of a growing axon or dendrite
The speed at which an action potential travels along an axon is called the:
"Neuron Fred and Neuron Wilma are both receiving synaptic input. In response to this input, the ion channels of both neurons are providing a total of 5nA of current. Both Neuron Fred and Neuron Wilma have an intrinsic "resistance" of 2MOhms and an resting membrane potential (Vm) of -65mV. Neuron Wilma has a firing threshold of -50mV. Neuron Fred is receiving neuromodulation that has changed his action potential firing threshold to -56mV. Keeping in mind that 1MOhm x 1nA = 1mV, who will fire an action potential in response to the synaptic input they are receiving?"
True or False:
Action potentials are produced in the postsynaptic cell only when the summed EPSPs and IPSPs produce a change in membrane potential that reaches (or exceeds) the action potential voltage threshold.
What is true about metabotropic receptors?
-The binding of a molecule to these receptors causes an intracellular metabolic reaction that requires energy (e.g. GTP)
-When activated (e.g. by a neurotransmitter binding to the receptor), they can produce "signalling cascades" through molecules, enzymes, ions, and other substances within a neuron. (These substances are known as the "effectors" within the cell.)
-They can be attached to intracellular G-proteins (aka "G-protein coupled receptors")
-Activation of these receptors can produce a very large amount of proteins through processes of signal amplification.
The nervous system develops from which embryological cell layer?
Neurons migrate to the outer layers of the cortex on:
True or False: As neurons migrate to form the outer layers of the cortex, the most superficial cortical layer (1) is formed first, and the deepest cortical layer (6) is formed last.
The rising phase of the action potential is caused by the opening of which ion channels?
Voltage-gated sodium channels
As seen in the well-studied circuits of the mammalian hippocampus, long-lasting increases in synaptic strength are often called _______________________, and long-lasting decreases in synaptic strength are often called ____________________.
long-term potentiation / long-term depression
Acetylcholine typically activates which kinds of receptors?
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