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Which of the following is considered a linkage institution?

The media

All of the following are characteristics of politics except:

The passing of laws that serve to further minority rights

Which of the following institutions established in the Constitution make public policy?

The Congress, the president, and the courts

Which of the following best defines a set of institutions linking government, politics, and public policy?

A political system

Which of the following are considered linkage institutions?

Political parties, the media

Which of the following principles describes a philosophy of the Federalist Party?

Federalists believed in a loose construction of the Constitution

All of the following characteristics reflect the reasons why political parties are formed except

People band together because they have smilar income

Which of the following groups examines a candidate's record primarily on specific issues?

Single-interest groups

All of the following are basic principles of our democracy today EXCEPT a belief in

universal healthcare

Which of the following institutions is commonly called the fourth branch of government?

The bureaucracy

Which of the following principles is most fundamental to democratic theory?

Free elections and universal suffrage

All of the following factors contribute to an enlightened understanding of the electorate EXCEPT

the right to property

Which of the following groups believes that bargaining and compromise are essential to democracy?


Which of the following theories contends that our society is divided along class linse and that a narrow upper-class strata rules regardless of the formal organization of government?


Which statements best reflects what the United States Constitution represents?

The Constitution is a basic framework for the government. The Constitution is an explanation of the way government operates, assigning separate powers to each branch and guaranteeing citizens their rights. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.

John Locke's Second Treatise of Civil Government advocates

natural rights

Which of the following statements best reflects the political philosophy established after the colonists achieved their independence?

The former colonists believed that the states should become the dominant political and social force

When the Articles of Confederation were adopted, the nation's major concern was dominated by

economic issues

Which of the following documents represents the first adopted Constitution for the United States?

Articles of Confederation

Which of the following statements best describes the Articles of Confederation?

Domination of the government by the states. A national congress with one house and no executive. No national court system. No ability of the central government to enforce the collection of taxes

Which of the following statements in the Federalist Papers referred to "the most common and durable source of faction"

The unequal distribution of property

Madison believed that in order to prevent a "tyranny of the majority" the new government should include all the following EXCEPT

limiting the president's term of office

Complete the following statement: Even though the representatives to the Constitutional Convention came from different parts of the country and had differing economic status, they were able to agree to:

A series of political compromises. A Republican government for each state. The method to count slaves for representation purposes.

Which statement reflects James Madison's point of view in the Federalist Papers regarding the consequences of unequal distribution of wealth?

The formation of factions. The probability of minority discontent. The development of political parties.

Which fo the following documents created a compromise that led to the formation of a bicameral legislature?

Connecticut Compromise

Which of the following statements reflects an action taken by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention?

Outlawing future importing of slaves. Setting a number for counting slaves for representation purposes

The Federalists believed that a nation dominated by factions would lead to

a tyranny of the majority

Which of the following illustrates the effects that the system of checks and balances and separation of powers has on the legislative process?

It can create gridlock. It can encourage political compromise

The Constitution's writers carefully drafted a document that would create

The ability to adapt to changing times

Which of the following governmental bodies is most directly responsible to the electorate?

The House of Representatives

The question of the constitutionality of a term limit for legislators imposed by a state constitution is based on which of the following arguments?

The fact that the Constitution sets the qualifications for congressmen

The practice of judicial review was first established by which of the following actions?

The Supreme Court can declare a congressional act unconstitutional

Which of the following resulted after the Supreme Court made a ruling in Baker v Carr?

The principle of "one man, one vote" was established

All of the following are enumerated powers of the Congress except:

Setting up the first National Bank of the Untied States

The implied power clause in the Constitution has been described as the ability of Congress to take which of the following actions?

Pass an assault weapons ban

In addition to the stated constitutional powers of the president, which of the following roles does he take on?

Acting as head of his political party

Which of the following is the only stated constitutional responsibility of the vice president?

Presiding over the Senate

Which of the following represents a major reason why the electoral college was created?

It would enable a select group of electors to cast the final vote for president and vice president

All of the following represents examples of limited government EXCEPT

the Reserved Power Clause of the Tenth Amendment

All the following represent examples of the use of checks and balances except

Congress passing the Crime Bill after a conference committee made changes

Which of the following actions increases the power of the president?

A greater reliance on the federal government to solve problems

The appointment of Supreme Court justices in the 1980s was characterized by

Bitter confirmation battles over personal and philosophical positions of the nominees

Which of the following represents the theoretical definition of federalism?

A division of power between the federal government and state governments

Advocates of a strong federal system believe in all of the following EXCEPT

Local problems are more suited to solve problems than national leaders

According to the writings of the Federalist Paper, which of the following reflects a major reason for the support of a federal system?

Local governments will maintain their authority and will be able to care for their citizens

All of the following Supreme Court cases dealt with the issue of federalism except

Marbury v Madison

The constitutional provision used in the Supreme Court case McCulloch v Maryland was

The "necessary and proper" clause The Supremacy Clause

The constitutional basis of dual federalism can be found in

The Tenth Amendment

Which general area of policy is generally left up to the states?

Health and welfare

Which general area of policy is generally left up to the central government?

Interstate commerce

Which kind of federalism best describes an autonomous relationship between the states and the national government?

Layer cake federalism

All of the following are characteristics of marble cake federalism except

The national government exercises its power independently from state governments

Creative federalism of the Great Society was characterized by

Shared costs between the national and state governments, guidelines and rules set down by the federal government

Which historical period represents the introduction of competitive federalism?

The 1970s and 1980s

Which type of federalism is characterized by a pattern of competitive grants?

Fiscal federalism

Which of the following best represnts the components of fiscal federalism?

The passage of funded mandates, the passage of revenue sharing measures, and the passage of categorical grants

An alternative developed by the federal government that places the primary fiscal responsibility on the states was

unfunded mandates

Which of the following laws was challenged by states because they felt that the federal government imposed an unfair unfunded mandate?

Motor Voter Registration Act of 1993

Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan's vision of new federalism favored

the downsizing of the federal government

Which of the following provisions of the Republican Contract with America addresses the issue of federalism?

Welfare Reform Act, balanced budget constitutional amendment

Which of the following arguments represents the best reason why a bill of rights was added to the Constitution?

Key states insisted on a bill of rights prior to approving the Constitution

Which of the following decisions made by Chief Justice John Marshall's Court established the principle that the Bill of Rights only applied to the federal government?

Barron v Baltimore

The Supreme Court decision Gitlow v New York

Incorporation of the Bill of Rights in state cases was allowed

The establishment clause of the First Amendment speaks of

a wall of separation between church and state

Which of the following Supreme Court cases established the "clear and present danger" doctrine?

Schenck v United States

The terms prior review and prior restraint refer to which of the following constitutional principles?

Freedom of the press

The Lemon test is used to determine if

legislation that deals with religion creates illegal government interference

The principle established by the Supreme Court in the case of Tinker v Des Moines states that

Student rights did not stop at the schoolhouse gates

The principle established in the Supreme Court case of Texas v Johnson was based on

symbolic speech

In the case of Mapp v Ohio, the Supreme Court

the exclusionary rule of evidence

Which of the following cases used the Ninth Amendment as a constitutional argument?

Roe v Wade

All of the following steps are part of procedural due process except

A jury made up of different ethnic groups

The intent of the decision made in Miranda v Arizona was

To guarantee due process rights of the accused

The Right to die is an implicit right found in which part of the Constitution

Ninth Amendment

Which of the following historical events advanced the intent of the Fourteenth Amendment?

Civil rights acts

Which of the following judicial principles reduced the impact of the Fourteenth Amendment?

Separate but equal

Which of the following doctrines made the Bill of Rights applicable to the states?

Incorporation principle

All the following criteria were used to establish the nationalization of the Fourteenth Amendment except

the police power of states

Which of the following represents a legal difference between de facto and de jure segregation?

De jure segregation is illegal based on Supreme Court decisions

Which of the following constitutional provisions has been used to strike down discrimination in public accommodations?

Article I Section 8's commerce clause

A major impact of the Bakke decision was that

Reverse discrimination based on quotas was illegal

All of the following criteria represent procedures used for evaluating the legitimacy of affirmative action programs except

affirmative action programs based strictly on quotas

The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations in the past of man toward woman. Which of the following documents contained this passage?

Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions

Which of the following furthered the cause of civil rights for women?

Title VII of the Civil RIghts Act of 1964, decisions of the Court regarding the issue of comparable worth, medium scrutiny standards established in judicial decisions

Which of the following cases helped further civil rights for students?

Tinker v Des Moines

Discrimination in the workplaces has been made illegal by all the following except:

Passage of proposition 187

Which of the following defines a team of men and women banding together to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election?

Political party

All of the following are characteristics of politics EXCEPT

The passage of laws that serve to further minority rights

Relationships among which of the following exist in political parties?

The party and the courts

Which of the following translate in puts from the public into outputs from the policymakers?

Linkage institutions

Which of the following are considered linkage institutions?

Political parties, media

Which of the following philosophies is reflected by the majority of the American electorate?

A middle-of-the-road philosophy

In the long history of the American party system, successful parties rarely stray from

the midpoint of public opinion

Which of the following best describes the history of American political parties?

America has had two parties that have consistently dominated the political arena

Which of the following results after a critical election occurs?

Party realignment

Which of the following terms means that people are gradually moving away from both parties?


All of the following choices reflect major changes that have occurred to the party system since Roosevelt's New Deal except:

Party organizations have become more energetic and effective, party loyalty has increased

Which characteristic reflects party politics of the 1990s?

The Democrats' Solid South no longer exists in national elections

Which of the following molds the values a person develops?

Political socialization

Which of the following determines the party platform?

The national convention

Which of the following reforms took place as a result of the McGovern-Frasier Commission?

The incorporation of minority delegates

Which of the following time periods reflects a change from the dominance of the Republicans as the nation's majority party?

The Great Depression

Which of the following events signaled the beginning of a Republican Party ascendancy for more than 60 years?

The Civil War

In which of the following institutions have the Republicans consistently been the minority party from 1968 to 1994?

House of Representatives

All of the following actions represent the conventional manner people usually participate in the political process EXCEPT

Participating in civil disobedience to achieve political goals

Which of the following has been suggested to increase party identification?

The party should present clearly defined programs, the party should present candidates who are committed to the party's positions

Which of the following terms represents the official designation of a person running for office?

Party nomination

The manner in which candidates attempt to effectively use money and media attention in order to achieve the nomination is called campaign


Political "spin" means

The attempts of handlers to present a favorable account of events

The goal of the nominating game is to win a majority of delegates' support at which of the following stages of the campaign?

National party convention

Before primaries existed, state parties selected their delegates to the national convention through which of the following processes?


With the exception of Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, no one has been elected president since 1952 without first having won

New Hampshire

Criticisms of the election process include all the following except:

The system allows little room for media involvement

In order to organize their presidential campaigns effectively, a candidate must do all the following EXCEPT:

Announce his or her choice for vice president during the primaries

If presidential candidates accept federal support int eh form of matching campaign financing, then they

Agree to limit their campaign expenditures to an amount prescribed by federal law

Presidential candidates must file periodic reports with the Federal Election Commission, listing who contributed money and how it was spent

Regardless of whether or not they receive matching federal funding

Few developments since the Watergate crisis have generated as much cynicism about government as the

Explosive growth of special interest groups and PACs

Which of the following concerns most bothers politicians about the rising costs of campaigning?

They are involved with fundraising, which takes up most of their time

Which of the following campaign finance reforms has been adopted?

Abolishing soft money contributions

Television news coverage of a candidate generally focuses on all of the following except

A candidate's explanation of a complex policy statement

Four decades of research on political campaigns lead to the following conclusion that

Campaigns mostly reinforce and activate, only rarely do they convert

All of the following factors tend to weaken a candidate's chances for election EXCEPT

Raising large amounts of money

Which of the following provides voters the chance to directly approve or disapprove a legislative proposition?

A referendum

The first time a candidate attempts to effectively use money and media attention in order to achieve name recognition is the

Invisible primary

Many political scientists concluded that Bill Clinton had won the election of 1996 because

There was unity in the Democratic Party

All of the following statements about campaign strategy are true EXCEPT:

The candidate must campaign in all 50 states

Which of the following conclusions can be made about voting behavior?

Voting is a class-based activity

Which section of the country has the lowest voter turnout?

The South

Which class of people has the highest percentage of voter turnout?

Upper class

Which of the following definitions reflects the idea that the victorious party should carry out its proposed agenda?

The mandate theory of elections

Which of the following is a major result of media-centered politics?

A decrease in voter turnout

Which of the following represents the most effective way for a president to manage news coverage?

Controlling the flow of information

All the following are criticisms aimed at the media except:

The media's investigations of politicians usually emphasize serious issues

Which of the following groups represents the audience the media aims to develop stories for?

The masses

All of the following reflect the constitutional basis of suffrage except:

Term limits on United States senators and representatives passed by individual states

All of the following statements best explain why people vote except

Political surveys

Which of the following trends most closely reflects the last 40 years of American electoral history?

An increase in suffrage opportunities

All the following conclusions are true about voting behavior except:

Young people have the highest turnout rate

The Motor Voter Act signed by President Clinton makes it easier than ever to vote. All the following provisions accomplish the goals of the act except:

It purges people from voter rolls because they didn't vote in the previous election

In a presidential election, if no candidate receives an electoral college majority

The election is thrown into the House of Representatives

It has been shown in recent elections that during severe economic troubles, the electorate

tend to vote out incumbents

Which of the following has had a positive impact on the youth vote?

Jesse Jackson's Rainbow Coalition efforts, MTV's Rock the Vote efforts

Which of the following statements is true about the effect of ethnic groups on voter choice during the presidential elections of the 1990s

Jews tend to vote Democratic

The validity of a poll is best determined by

A sampling error of those pulled under 5 percent

Which of the following represents what media watchers would portray as the benchmark of investigative journalism?

The efforts of Woodward and Bernstein in uncovering the Watergate coverup

Which of the following represents an effect of the passage of the Freedom of Information Act?

More meetings were opened to the public

An interest group is most likely to have influence in Congress with which of the following situations?

An issue that is narrow in scope and low in public visibility

All of the following statements concerning interest groups are true except

They often run their own candidates for public office

Special interest groups do all the following except

Donate money to federal judges

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