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Chapter 16

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Italian Renaissance
The early period in which Italy was the center of the Renaissance and also the revival of classical art, literature and learning based on humanism.
Niccolo Machinvelli
Author of The Prince (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance
Humanism
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages
Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against holy Roman emperor
Johannes Gutenburg
Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets
European-Style Family
Originated in the 15th century among the peasant and artisans of Western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis in the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married
Martin Luther
German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of Church
Protestantism
General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief
Anglican Church
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
Jean Calvin
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
Adam Smith
Established liberal economics (Wealth of Nations, 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces
Catholic Reformation
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs
Jesuits
A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North American and Asia
Edict of Nantes
Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
Proletariat
Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
Witchcraft Hysteria
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas (? Word not in online glossary. Did I copy wrong?)
Scientific Revolution
Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages
Copernicus
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
Galileo
Published Copernicus's findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work
John Harvey
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump
Rene Descartes
Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature
Issac Newton
English scientist during the 17th century; author of Principia; drew the various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity
Deism
Concept of God current during the scientific revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun
John Locke
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses; argued that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants
Absolute Monarchy
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies
Louis XIV
French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy
Mercantilism
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
Glorious Revolution
English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king
Fredrick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy
Mary Wollstonecraft
nlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women