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secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into body cavities, into the lumen of an organ, or to the outer surface of the body.
secrete their products into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells rather then into ducts
local hormons that act on neighboring cells
(only released into the interstitial fluid to regulate nearby cells)
derived from cholesterol, each is unique due to the presence of different chemical groups attached at various sites on the four rings at the core of the structure (derived from cholesterol with characteristics 4-ring structure)
synthesized by decarboxylating, & otherwise modifying certain amino acids, called amines b/c retain amino group, water soluble hormone
amino acid polymers, smaller peptides 3-49 amino acids and larger 50-200 amino acids
(amino acid polymers up to 49 in length)
synthesized by cells in the liver (increase the water solubility of lipid-soluble hormones)
the anterior pituitary, accounts for about 75% of the total weight of the gland; secretes hormones that regulate a wide range of bodily activates from growth to reproduction; releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones. (synthesizes hormones & secretes them)
the posterior pituitary, does not synthesize hormones but stores and releases hormones; oxyocin and antidiuretic hormone. (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland)
secretions from gonadotrophs- follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which both act on the gonads; stimulate secretion of estrogens and progesterone and the maturation of ooytes, stimulate sperm production and secretion of testosterone in the testes. (follicle-stimulating hormone and lutenizing hormone)
abnormally low blood glucose concentration; stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete GHRH, which flows toward the anterior pituitary
abnormally high blood glucose concentration, stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete GHIH (stimulates hypothalamus to release growth hormone inhibiting-hormone)
substance that decreases urine production; causes the kidneys to return more water to the blood, decreasing ursine volume amount ADH secreted varies with blood osmotic pressure and blood volume. (pituitary stimulates kidneys to reabsorb more water back into the blood)
as cells produce and use more ATP, more heat is given off and body temperature rises; in the way- thyroid hormones play an important role in the maintenance of nomad body temperature (synthesis of additional Na+/K+ pumps results in more ATP use)
major regulator of the levels of Ca, Mg, and P ions in the blood; increase the number and activity of osteoclasts which results in elevated bone reabsorption; slows the rate at which Ca and Mg are lost from blood into the urine; promotes formation of the hormone calcitrol
the active form of vitamin D, increases the rate of Ca, P, and Mg absorption from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood (active form of vitamin D)
regulated by the adrenal cortex, affect mineral homeostasis; the main hormone is aldosterone- regulates homeostasis of two mineral ions, specifically Na and K ions; helps regulate blood pressure and blood volume and promotes excretion of H+ in the urine( secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex)
controlled by the adrenal cortex, regulates metabolism and resistance to stress; the main hormone is cortisol; has effects on-protein breakdown, glucose formation, lipolysis, resistance to stress, anti-inflammatory effects and depression of immune responses
controlled by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is released by the testes and adrenal androgens promotes drive and are converted to estrogen in females; stimulate growth of axillary and pubic hair in boys & girls and contributes to the prepubertal growth spurt
secreted by the pineal gland, is an amine hormone derived from serotonin; contributes to the setting of the body's biological clock, controlled by the hypothalamus; more melatonin is liberated during darkness and it is thought to promote sleepiness; during sleep- plasma levels of melatonin increase tenfold and then decline to a low level again before awakening (sets the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus)
hyper secretion of hGH during during adulthood; since it can't produce further lengthening of the bones because the epiphyseal plates and closed-bones of the hands, feet, cheeks, and jaws thickens and develops furrows (hyper secretion of hGH in adults abnormally thickens tissues)
dysfunction of the posterior pituitary; due to defects in antidiuretic hormone receptors or an inability to secrete ADH; symptoms- excretion of large volumes of urine, with resulting dehydration and thirst (caused by either ADH hypo secretion or renal ADH insensitivity)
disorder of the thyroid gland, caused by hypothyroidism during the adult years; edema common of the disorder the causes the facial tissues to swell and look puffy, has a slower heart rate, low body temp., sensitivity to cold, general lethargy and may be less alert
common in people with Graves' disease; includes edema behind the eyes that causes the eyes to protrude (often occurs in Graves' patients)
enlarged thyroid gland that is associated with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism; in some cases- dietary intake is inadequate which causes thyroid gland enlargement
disorder of the adrenal gland due to hyper secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex; causes include a tumor of the adrenal gland that secretes cortisol; characterized by breakdown of muscle proteins and redistribution of body fat- results in spindly arms and legs and a "moon face" or "buffalo hump" on the back; the elevated level of cortisol causes hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, etc. (characterized by body fat redistribution and breakdown of muscle proteins)
most common endocrine disorder, or the pancreatic islet; caused by an inability to produce or use insulin; since insulin is unavailable to aid transport of glucose into body cells, blood glucose level is high and glucose "spills" into the urine; polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia are common.
in type 1 diabetes, since insulin is not present to aid glucose into body cells, most cells use fatty acids to produce ATP; triglycerides in adipose tissue are catabolized to yield fatty acids and glycerol- byproducts of fatty acid breakdown are organic acids called ketones or ketone bodies; buildup of these ketones causes blood pH to fall (may result from excessive triglyceride breakdown in diabetics)
excessive development of mammary glands in a male, could be caused by a tumor present in the adrenal gland that produces enough estrogen to cause this condition (excessive mammary gland development in males)
presence of excessive body and facial hair in male pattern, especially in women could be due to excessive androgen production due to tumors or drugs (excess androgen production causes inappropriate hair growth)
tumor of the adrenal gland that liberates excessive androgens and causing masculinization in females
the branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood-forming tissues and the disorders associated with them (study of blood and blood forming tissues)
percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC's- hematocrit of 40 indicates that 40% of the volume of blood is composed of RBC's (percentage of total blood volume composed of erythrocytes)
process by which the formed elements of blood develop; before birth-first occurs in the yolk sac of an embryo and later in the liver, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes or a fetus; red bone marrow= source of red blood cells after birth & throughout life (
increases the number of RBC precursors and is produced primarily by cells in the kidneys that lie between the kidney tubules; with renal failure EPO release slows and RBC production is inadequate (produced by peritubular interstitial cells of the kidney)
hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets (hepatic hormone that stimulates platelet production)
measurement in the rate of erythropoiesis, about 1% of the oldest RBCs are replaced by newcomer reticulocytes on any given day; low "retic" count-shortage of erythropoietin or inability of the red bone marrow to respond to EPO
cellular oxygen deficiency that occurs when too little oxygen enters the blood; oxygen delivery may fall due to anemia, circulatory problems or lack or oxygen due to high altitudes; hypoxia stimulates kidney's to inc. the release of erythropoietin which increases circulating RBCs and ,more oxygen can be delivered to tissues ( general term for tissue oxygen deficiency)
an increase in the number of WBCs above 10,000/ul- is normal, protective response to stresses such as invading microbes, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery (abnormal increase in white blood cell levels)
a sequence of responses that stops bleeding, is localized to the region of damage steps- vascular spasm, platelet plug formation and blood clotting; prevents hemorrhage when successful (when successful, prevents hemorrhage)
when blood is drawn from the body, it thickens and forms a gel-eventually the gel separates from the liquid; this straw-colored liquid is blood plasma minus the clotting proteins (blood plasma without the clotting proteins)
an active plasma enzyme that can dissolve a clot by digesting fibrin threads and inactivating substances such as fibrinogen and prothrombin (also called fibrinogen)
a clot that may dissolve spontaneously; if not, it may become dislodged and be swept away in the blood (may become dislodged and swept away in the blood stream)
a blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones ora piece of debris transported by the blood stream; if it breaks away from an arterial wall, it may lodge a smaller-diameter artery and block bloodflow to a vital organ (
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