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33 terms

Biology 102: Ch 28

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protists
any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus; most unicellular, some are colonial or multicellular
5 Kingdoms Model
Monera; Protista; Animalia, Fungi, Plantae
Kingdom Animalia (animals)
eukaryotic, multicellular, ingestors (eat other organisms via a mouth - ingestion), internal digestion
Kingdom Fungi (mushrooms, molds, mildews)
eukaryotic, multicellular, absorbers (secrete hydrolutic enzymes into environment), external digestion, nutrients obtained by absorption, cell walls of chitin
Kingdom Plantae (plants)
eukaryotic, multicellular photosynthesizers, cell walls of cellulose
Kingdom Protista (Protists)
eukaryotic, unicellular (some colonial), simple milticellular - Algae, Water Molds and Protozoa
Algae
eukaryotic, unicellular photosynthetic (some ancestors of plants)
Water Mold
eukaryotic, unicellular absorbers (some ancestors of fungi)
Protozoa
eukaryotic, unicellular ingestors (some ancestors of animals)
Kingdom Monera
prokaryotic (bacteria & relataives)
6 Kingdom Model
Archaea-Bacteria; Protista; Fungi, Animalia, Plantae
Kingdom Bacteria
prokaryotes with cell walls of amino acid polymer peptidoglycan, live in hospitable areas
Kingdom Archaea
cells walls of variety of polymers; tend to live in extreme environments (hot springs)
endosymbiosis
process in which a unicellular organism (the "host") engulfs another cell, which lives within the host cell and ultimately becomes an organelle in the host cell
Chlamydomonas - Sexual Reproduction
Mature Cell (n) --> +/- gamete ---> Fertilization --> Zygote (2n) --> Meiosis ---> 4 haploids
Chlamydomonas - Asexual Reproduction
Mature Cell (n) --> Reabsorb Flagella ---> 2x Mitosis --> 4 Zoospores (n) ---> Mature Cell (n)
Chlamydomonas
Simplest, unicellular (photoplankton)
Volvox
Colonies of individual cells
Ulothrix
Filaments, 1-D chains of cells, multicellular
Ulva (Sea lettuce)
True multicellular bodies by cell division, Differentiation (cell specialization), "sheets"
Green Algae
Structure and pigment much like chloroplasts of land plants (a & b chorophyll & alt. of generations); different algea = isomorpghic gametes +/- (look same, diff bio chem)
Caulerpa
multicellular, epeated division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic division
2 Main Groups of Green Algae
Charophytes (Most closely related to land plants) and Chlorophytes (most in fresh water, some marine and terrestrial)
5 Super Groups of Eukaryotes
Excavata, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, Unikonta
Red & Green Algea Super Group
Archaeplastida
Endosymbiosis
process in which a unicellular organism engulfs another cell, which becomes an endosymbiant then organelle in host cell
Mitochondria
evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote (can do cellular resp. = ATP = energy)
Plastids
evolved by endosymbiosis of photosynthetic cyanobacterium
DNA - algae and cyanobacteria
circular DNA in plastids/mitochondira = similar to prokaryote DNA
Evidence to Support Theory of Endosymbiosis
(plastids/mitochondira & prokaryotes) enzymes and transport systems, replicate by a splitting process, single circular DNA molecule, cellular machinery needed to transcribe and translate their DNA into proteins, similarities in ribosome RNA sequences and sensitivity to certain antibotics
Primary Endosymbiosis
Heterotrophic Eukaryote + (-) Cyanobacterium = 3 membraned protist (4-1=3, 1 membane lost = red & green algal descendants)
Secondary Endosymbosis
Red & green algae were ingested in the food valcuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes and became endosymbionts themselves
Secondary Endosymbosis Evidence
vestigial nucleus (nuclemorph), DNA sequences indication, 4 membranes (2 inner most membranes from the inner and outer membrane of the ancient cyanobacterium; 3 - alga's plasma membrane; outermost - heterotrophic eukaryote's food vacuole membrane), Some surrounded by 3 (lose one in course of evolution)