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any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus; most unicellular, some are colonial or multicellular

5 Kingdoms Model

Monera; Protista; Animalia, Fungi, Plantae

Kingdom Animalia (animals)

eukaryotic, multicellular, ingestors (eat other organisms via a mouth - ingestion), internal digestion

Kingdom Fungi (mushrooms, molds, mildews)

eukaryotic, multicellular, absorbers (secrete hydrolutic enzymes into environment), external digestion, nutrients obtained by absorption, cell walls of chitin

Kingdom Plantae (plants)

eukaryotic, multicellular photosynthesizers, cell walls of cellulose

Kingdom Protista (Protists)

eukaryotic, unicellular (some colonial), simple milticellular - Algae, Water Molds and Protozoa


eukaryotic, unicellular photosynthetic (some ancestors of plants)

Water Mold

eukaryotic, unicellular absorbers (some ancestors of fungi)


eukaryotic, unicellular ingestors (some ancestors of animals)

Kingdom Monera

prokaryotic (bacteria & relataives)

6 Kingdom Model

Archaea-Bacteria; Protista; Fungi, Animalia, Plantae

Kingdom Bacteria

prokaryotes with cell walls of amino acid polymer peptidoglycan, live in hospitable areas

Kingdom Archaea

cells walls of variety of polymers; tend to live in extreme environments (hot springs)


process in which a unicellular organism (the "host") engulfs another cell, which lives within the host cell and ultimately becomes an organelle in the host cell

Chlamydomonas - Sexual Reproduction

Mature Cell (n) --> +/- gamete ---> Fertilization --> Zygote (2n) --> Meiosis ---> 4 haploids

Chlamydomonas - Asexual Reproduction

Mature Cell (n) --> Reabsorb Flagella ---> 2x Mitosis --> 4 Zoospores (n) ---> Mature Cell (n)


Simplest, unicellular (photoplankton)


Colonies of individual cells


Filaments, 1-D chains of cells, multicellular

Ulva (Sea lettuce)

True multicellular bodies by cell division, Differentiation (cell specialization), "sheets"

Green Algae

Structure and pigment much like chloroplasts of land plants (a & b chorophyll & alt. of generations); different algea = isomorpghic gametes +/- (look same, diff bio chem)


multicellular, epeated division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic division

2 Main Groups of Green Algae

Charophytes (Most closely related to land plants) and Chlorophytes (most in fresh water, some marine and terrestrial)

5 Super Groups of Eukaryotes

Excavata, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, Unikonta

Red & Green Algea Super Group



process in which a unicellular organism engulfs another cell, which becomes an endosymbiant then organelle in host cell


evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote (can do cellular resp. = ATP = energy)


evolved by endosymbiosis of photosynthetic cyanobacterium

DNA - algae and cyanobacteria

circular DNA in plastids/mitochondira = similar to prokaryote DNA

Evidence to Support Theory of Endosymbiosis

(plastids/mitochondira & prokaryotes) enzymes and transport systems, replicate by a splitting process, single circular DNA molecule, cellular machinery needed to transcribe and translate their DNA into proteins, similarities in ribosome RNA sequences and sensitivity to certain antibotics

Primary Endosymbiosis

Heterotrophic Eukaryote + (-) Cyanobacterium = 3 membraned protist (4-1=3, 1 membane lost = red & green algal descendants)

Secondary Endosymbosis

Red & green algae were ingested in the food valcuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes and became endosymbionts themselves

Secondary Endosymbosis Evidence

vestigial nucleus (nuclemorph), DNA sequences indication, 4 membranes (2 inner most membranes from the inner and outer membrane of the ancient cyanobacterium; 3 - alga's plasma membrane; outermost - heterotrophic eukaryote's food vacuole membrane), Some surrounded by 3 (lose one in course of evolution)

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