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any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus; most unicellular, some are colonial or multicellular
Kingdom Animalia (animals)
eukaryotic, multicellular, ingestors (eat other organisms via a mouth - ingestion), internal digestion
Kingdom Fungi (mushrooms, molds, mildews)
eukaryotic, multicellular, absorbers (secrete hydrolutic enzymes into environment), external digestion, nutrients obtained by absorption, cell walls of chitin
Kingdom Protista (Protists)
eukaryotic, unicellular (some colonial), simple milticellular - Algae, Water Molds and Protozoa
prokaryotes with cell walls of amino acid polymer peptidoglycan, live in hospitable areas
cells walls of variety of polymers; tend to live in extreme environments (hot springs)
process in which a unicellular organism (the "host") engulfs another cell, which lives within the host cell and ultimately becomes an organelle in the host cell
Chlamydomonas - Sexual Reproduction
Mature Cell (n) --> +/- gamete ---> Fertilization --> Zygote (2n) --> Meiosis ---> 4 haploids
Chlamydomonas - Asexual Reproduction
Mature Cell (n) --> Reabsorb Flagella ---> 2x Mitosis --> 4 Zoospores (n) ---> Mature Cell (n)
Ulva (Sea lettuce)
True multicellular bodies by cell division, Differentiation (cell specialization), "sheets"
Structure and pigment much like chloroplasts of land plants (a & b chorophyll & alt. of generations); different algea = isomorpghic gametes +/- (look same, diff bio chem)
2 Main Groups of Green Algae
Charophytes (Most closely related to land plants) and Chlorophytes (most in fresh water, some marine and terrestrial)
process in which a unicellular organism engulfs another cell, which becomes an endosymbiant then organelle in host cell
evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote (can do cellular resp. = ATP = energy)
Evidence to Support Theory of Endosymbiosis
(plastids/mitochondira & prokaryotes) enzymes and transport systems, replicate by a splitting process, single circular DNA molecule, cellular machinery needed to transcribe and translate their DNA into proteins, similarities in ribosome RNA sequences and sensitivity to certain antibotics
Heterotrophic Eukaryote + (-) Cyanobacterium = 3 membraned protist (4-1=3, 1 membane lost = red & green algal descendants)
Red & green algae were ingested in the food valcuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes and became endosymbionts themselves
Secondary Endosymbosis Evidence
vestigial nucleus (nuclemorph), DNA sequences indication, 4 membranes (2 inner most membranes from the inner and outer membrane of the ancient cyanobacterium; 3 - alga's plasma membrane; outermost - heterotrophic eukaryote's food vacuole membrane), Some surrounded by 3 (lose one in course of evolution)
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