Terms in this set (65)
pharaoh of the New Kingdom; introduced the worship of the sole god Aten, which caused great upheaval
people of Akkad, lived in Mesopotamia north of the Sumerian city-state
Semitic-speaking group who exploited the use of iron weapons to establish an empire by 700 B.C.
city-state in Sumer, south of Akkad; ruled by Hammurabi and became the center of a Mesopotamian kingdom
an administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Pharaoh who tried to reestablish Egypt's independence from Rome in the first century B.C., but was defeated
made or brought something new into existence
"wedge-shaped," a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet
Created and ruled the Persian Empire from 559 B.C. to 530 B.C. Known as Cyrus the Great.
ruled the Persian Empire from 521 B.C. to 486 B.C., enlarged and strengthened the Persian government by dividing it into provinces.
adapted to life with and to the advantage of humans
a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories
southern river that boarded Mesopotamia
arc of land from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, included Mesopotamia and coastal lands with rich soil and abundant crops
location in Egypt at which the Great Pyramid of King Khufu was constructed
Babylonian ruler who created a new Mesopotamian kingdom (1792-1750 B.C.) and who established a collection of laws
First woman to become pharaoh; she built a great temple near Thebes and her reign was a prosperous one
simplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancient Egypt for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs of daily life
"priest-carvings" or "sacred writings," a complex system of writing that used both pictures and more abstract forms; used by the ancient Egyptians and Mayans
first Indo-Europeans to use iron; their empire was centered in what is today Turkey
a people from western Asia who invaded Egypt around 1650 B.C., brought technology such as horse-drawn war chariots and bronze making
believing that one is the same or very similar to another
professional soldiers who made up the Persian Empire's standing army
One of the most important nomadic groups who used a language derived from a single parent tongue. They probably originated north of the Black Sea or in Southwest Asia and traversed into Europe, India, and western Asia.
a new idea, method, or device
A Semitic-speaking group whose religion - known today as Judaism - flourished as a world religion and later influenced Christianity and Islam
capital of the Kingdom of Judah and, earlier, all of Israel
Israelite king who expanded the government and encouraged trade. He was known for his wisdom.
Nile Delta region of Egypt to the north along the Mediterranean Sea
great; significant in size or importance
Egyptian king who, around 3100 B.C., united villages in southern Egypt and northern Egypt to create the first Egyptian royal dynasty
land "between the rivers," site of the earliest civilizations, bordered by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
government by a sovereign ruler such as a king or queen
having one god
a process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from decaying
Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon as one of the great cities of the world
The longest river in the world at more than 4,000 miles, beginning in the middle of Africa and coursing northward into the Mediterranean. It is an important resource to Egypt's arid environment.
a person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals
dominated by men
Indo-European group who lived in today's southwestern Iran. Primarily nomadic, they became unified under Cyrus. The Persian Empire invaded Egypt, western India, and much of Europe.
the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarchs; the term originally meant "great house" or "palace"
great shipbuilders and sea traders who lived in the area of Palestine; best known for their alphabet
relating to the body
having many gods
Reigned from 1279-1213 B.C. and tried to gain back the land previously lost to the Egyptians
a controlling force
the Persian Empire's well-maintained transportation network; stretched from Lydia to Susa
Leader of the Akkadians (Semitic people) who established the first empire in world history (around 2340 B.C.)
"protector of the Kingdom," the governor of a province (satrapy) of the Persian Empire under Darius
one of the 20 provinces into which Darius divided the Persian Empire
made an attempt; tried
creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization
supported or held up
the science or study of the practical or industrial arts; applied sciences
government by divine authority
northern river that bordered Mesopotamia
the moving of goods or people
Boy-pharaoh who restored the old gods after Akhenaton had destroyed all but the sun god. His tomb was discovered almost intact in the 20th century
part of Egypt that lies upstream, to the south
Sumerian city-state in southern Mesopotamia
a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries
a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city
revered as the prophet of the Persian's monotheistic religion, Zoroastrianism