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126 terms

Abnormal Psych 3010

CH1&2
STUDY
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He believes that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid and is a myth.
Szasz
While there are numerous definitions of abnormality, most definitions share the following features: deviance, distress, danger, and:
dysfunction
A society's stated and unstated riles for proper conduct are known as:
norms
He stated "therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims... it seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided."
Rogers
He stated that all forms of therapy have three key features.
Frank
A group of friends decided to "let off some steam" and went to the local auto junkyard everyday to destroy some cars. This is not considered therapy for all of the following EXCEPT:
there is a series of systematic contacts between the sufferer and the inanimate objects.
He was a Viennese physician who developed the theory of psychoanalysis.
Freud
While the subject of many modern movies, back in the Middle Ages those who believed that they were possessed by wolves or other animals were suffering from:
lycantropy
He was the first physician to specialize in mental illness, and he believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was.
Weyer
Before the 1950s, psychotherapy was offered only by:
psychiatrists
These medications lift the mood of depressed people.
antidepressants
Only ___ percent of persons with severe psychological disturbances currently receive treatment of any kind.
40
This is a research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants.
analogue experiment
Jackson was given 20mg of Drug X to determine if there would be a 25% reduction in his depressive symptoms. The dependent variable is:
a 25% reduction of his depressive symptoms
Dr. Haigen published a book based on his twenty years as a forensic psychologist. He included numerous accounts or _______________ of various patients he worked with.
case studies
Eileen has chosen not to get married, have children, and lives with ten dogs. She rarely goes out, yet she does not bother anyone. This is considered an example of:
eccentricity.
He believes that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid and is a myth.
Szasz
George was tormented by the deprecating voices he kept hearing. This is an example of which of the four D's?
distress
He stated "therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims... it seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided."
Rogers
A group of friends decided to "let off some steam" and went to the local auto junkyard everyday to destroy some cars. This is not considered therapy for all of the following EXCEPT:
there is a series of systematic contacts between the sufferer and the inanimate objects.
He stated that all forms of therapy have three key features.
Frank
In ________, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that eugenic sterilization was constitutional.
1927
He is considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology.
Weyer
This ancient operation involved the cutting away of a circular section of the skull to treat abnormal behavior.
trephination
Before the 1950s, psychotherapy was offered only by:
psychiatrists.
Only ___ percent of persons with severe psychological disturbances currently receive treatment of any kind.
40
These medications correct extremely confused and distorted thinking.
antipsychotics
Volunteers in the multinational anxiety trial were told that they would not know which treatment they would be receiving as this was a:
blind design.
This is the research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other.
correlational method
This is a research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants.
analogue experiment
During ECT, two electrodes are attached to a patient's forehead and an electrical current of ____ to ____ volts is passed briefly through the brain.
65 to 140
Tim's depression has continually failed to respond to typical treatments and his current episode has him on the brink of suicide. His psychiatrist recommends:
ECT.
Ron was prescribed the following class of medications to lessen the voices he was hearing and the persistent thoughts that someone was out to get him.
antipsychotics
These psychodynamic theorists give the greatest attention to the unified personality.
self theorists
The _________ operates on the pleasure principle, while the __________ operates on the reality principle.
id; ego
This model looks at people's unconscious internal processes and conflicts.
psychodynamic model
Jonas is afraid of elevators and begins to see a therapist who specializes in a behavioral treatment which is applied in a step-by-step procedure known as:
systematic desensitization.
This is the process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated.
operant conditioning
This model emphasizes behavior and the ways in which it is learned.
behavioral model
This therapy helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
cognitive therapy
Illogical thinking processes are another source of:
abnormal functioning.
This model concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior.
cognitive model
This therapy encourages the client to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values.
existential therapy
Unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy are all aspects of:
client-centered therapy.
They believe that people must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningfully in order to be psychologically well adjusted.
Existentialists
The goal of ________________ prevention is to provide effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems.
tertiary
The sociocultural model is comprised of ___ major perspectives.
2
Family therapy was first introduced in the:
1950's
Dr. Jacob supports this model which believes a full understanding of his patients' thoughts, emotions, and behavior must also include an understanding of their biological basis.
biological model
The three main biological treatments include all of the following EXCEPT:
psychotherapy.
During times of stress, the adrenal glands secrete the hormone:
cortisol
According to Freud, this is the psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals.
superego
Sharon is worried to truly tell her male therapist how she feels as she fears he may not accept her. Sharon's concerns may best be explained by:
transference.
These psychodynamic theorists give the greatest attention to the unified personality.
self theorists
Julie was driving her four-year-old son, Alec, to preschool when another driver cut her off. She immediately shouted an expletive at the other driver. During the day, Alec became angry when another child took his toy and he used this same expletive his mother used earlier. This is an example of:
modeling
Approximately ____ percent of today's clinical psychologists report that their approach is behavioral.
10
In the famous Pavlov experiment, the dog salivating to the meat powder is the:
unconditioned response
Nikki said hello to her professor in the hallway, but her professor did not say hello back. She spent the rest of the day worrying whether or not she would pass the class and if her professor was angry at her. This is an example of:
overgeneralizing
Approximately ____ percent of today's clinical psychologists report that their approach is cognitive.
28
__________________ involves therapists setting up services that invite persons with problems to e-mail their questions and concerns.
E-therapy
They believe that people must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningfully in order to be psychologically well adjusted.
Existentialists
He is considered to be the pioneer of the humanistic perspective.
Rogers
Humanists believe that people are driven to _______________, to fulfill their potential for goodness and growth.
self-actualize
This model looks to social and cultural forces as the keys to human functioning.
sociocultural model
________________ experience unusually high rates of anxiety disorders.
African Americans
In ______________________, therapists try to help members recognize and change harmful patterns of communication.
conjoint family therapy
Deviance
behaviors, thoughts, emotions, different from the normal. norms:stated/unstated rules for proper conduct. culture: history, values, habits, skills, technology, institutions, arts. western society: women and business: always changing
Distress
behaviors, emotions, thoughts causing distress. positive feelings causing hesitation, energized and challenged.
Dysfunction
cannot care for selves properly, interfering with daily functioning
Danger
Causing danger to one self or others
Elusive nature
Szasz "myth of sorts: problems of living not something wrong with person, eccentricity unusual pattern which others have no right to interfere.
Moral treatment
ben rush, moral, doctors give extra care, dorothy fix 1802-1827, humane care
Decline Moral
1850's money staff shortages, treated with humanity dignity hospitalization, custodial care over crowded, long term
Abnormal psychology
study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning
norms
societys stated and unstated rules for proper conduct
culture
peoples common history, values, institutions, skills, technology, art
trephination
operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular sections of the skill perhaps to treat abnormal behavior
humors
greeks and romans bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning.
asylum
type of institution that first became popular in the 16th century to provide care for persons with mental disorders. virtual prisoners.
moral treatment
19th century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful humane.
state hospitals
state run public mental institutions in the united states
somatogenic perspective
the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
psychogenic perspective
the view that the choef causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
psychoanalysis
theory or treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology.
psychotropic medications
drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
deinstitutionalization
practice begun 1960s of releasing the hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
prevention
interventions aimed at deterring disorders before they develop
positive psychology
study and enhancement of positive feelings traits and abilities
managed care program
system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature scope and cost of service
scientific method
process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon.
case study
detailed account of a persons life and psychological problems
correlation
the degree to which events or characteristics vary along each other
correlation method
research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other
epidemiological study
a study that measures the incidence and prevalent of a disorder in a given population
longitudinal study
a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time
experiment
research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed
independent
experiment that is manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable
Dependant
experiment that is expected to changed as the independent variable is manipulated.
control
group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable
experimental group
participants who are exposes to the independent variable
random assignment
selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group
blind design
experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in experimental or the control condition
quasi experiment
investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist int he world at large (mixed)
natural experiment
nature rather then experimenter manipulated independent variable.
single subject
single participant is observed and measured both before and after manipulation of an independent variable.
model
set of assumptions and concepts that help the scientist explain interpret observations
neuron
nerve cell
synapse
tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
neurotransmitter
chemical released by one neuron crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
hormones
chemicals released by endocrine glands into bloodstreem
gene
chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit
psychotropic medication
drugs primarily affecting the brain and reduce as many symptoms of mental dysfunction.
electroconvulsive therapy ect
biological treatment depressed patients brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passing though electrodes attached to patients forehead.
psychosurgery
brain surgery for mental disorders/neurosurgery
id
freud, instinctual needs, drives, impulses
ego
freud, employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle
ego defense
psychoanalytical theory, avoid or reduce anxiety
superego
freud, psychoanalytical force that represents values and ideals
fixation
freud, id superego and ego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
free ass
psychodynamic patient describes any thought feelings or image that comes to mind if it seems unimportant.
resistance
unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
dream
series of ideas and images during sleep
catharsis
reliving past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems.
self act
humanisitic process by which people fulfill their potentional for goodness and growth
client centered
humanistic, carl rogers, genuineness
gesalt
humanistic, perls, clinicians actively move clients toward self recognition and self acceptance by using techniques such aas role playing and self discovering exercise.